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Catholic Church-related controversies
Josemaria is a precursor of Vatican II in proposing the universal call to holiness" . Opus Dei central headquarters in Rome. He was persecuted by Franco and was elected as the first President of the Senate once democracy was restored. Devotional card to Montserrat Grases.
Retrieved 8 June Pope John Paul II. Retrieved 27 November Upon whom does the prelate of Opus Dei depend? Who appoints him? Opus Dei website. BBC News. Bill Tammeus 19 October Kansas City Star. Peter Berglar Retrieved 29 March John Allen Doubleday Religion. Josemaria Escriva". Retrieved 11 December BBC Religion and Ethics. Terry Mattingly. Alburquerque Tribune.
Archived from the original on 29 September Retrieved 2 April Archer, Graeme 5 October The Daily Telegraph. David Van Biema 19 April Retrieved 24 March Opus Dei Official Site. Retrieved 16 May Paul Preston A Biography. Retrieved 30 May Philip Copens. Archived from the original on 27 October MSN Encarta.
Archived from the original on 8 May John L. National Catholic Reporter. Catholic News Agency. Retrieved 4 March The Guardian. Associated Press. Archived from the original on 11 February Retrieved 12 December John McCloskey March Crisis Magazine. Archived from the original on 12 May Retrieved 28 November The New York Sun. Escriva, J, Christ is Passing By, n. National Public Radio. Catholic News Service. Archived from the original on 8 October Retrieved 11 March Archived from the original on 29 June Eternal Word Television Network.
Retrieved 13 April American Political Science Association. ABC News. Retrieved 11 January Romana: Official Bulletin of Opus Dei. Retrieved 4 July Friends of God. Opus Dei Files. Archived from the original on 11 March Retrieved 3 April Rob Boston. Catholics for Free Choice. Archived from the original on 17 August Retrieved 4 April Gilles Tremlett 5 October Mike Collet White. Washington Post. Archived from the original on 9 February Retrieved 6 January Center for Research on Population and Security. David Ruppe 18 June Time Magazine. Retrieved 28 August Catechism of the Catholic Church no.
Retrieved 20 August Retrieved 13 June Retrieved 24 January Catholic Hierarhcy. Retrieved 5 February Zenit News Agency. Archived from the original on 13 June Messori, Vittorio Regnery Publishing. The editio typica of the Statutes is given in Latin on the Opus Dei webpage. Chicago Tribune. Statutes of Opus Dei 2. Allen, Opus Dei, Ch. America: The National Catholic Weekly. Archived from the original on 16 January Opus Dei in the Church. Escriva said, "Opus Dei is a great catechesis. Archived from the original on 5 December Retrieved 20 March Liguori et Als on vocation and Opus Dei".
Retrieved 5 July Archived from the original on 14 June Ruth Bertels. Archived from the original on 30 August Moncada, Alberto. Richard Gordon. The University Concourse. Archived from the original on 11 November William O'Connor. University of Asia and the Pacific. Archived from the original on 19 July Archived from the original on 5 October Vatican Official site.
Michael Walsh Harper San Francisco. Paul Baumann. Washington Monthly. Archived from the original on 29 August Francesco Monterisi. Retrieved 17 February Archived from the original on 12 April Josemaria website. Retrieved 4 May Retrieved 3 May Noam Friedlander 8 October Tales of God, Blood, Money and Faith". The Times. Retrieved 10 February Brennan Hill. American Catholic. Maggy Whitehouse Hermes House. Patrice de Plunkett. Archived from the original on 30 September Retrieved 20 June Catholic Online. Ignatius Press. Miller, Laura 22 February Retrieved 3 February Neuhaus, Richard John June — July Richard Abanes.
Harvest House Publishers. Retrieved 30 March Preston, Paul The triumph of democracy in Spain. London: Methuen. Harding, Nick Secret societies. Edison, N.
Daily Record. Kim Lawton 29 June Archived from the original on 13 July Retrieved 23 February Edward Pentin. The American. Archived from the original on 16 October Massimo Introvigne Opus Dei members] but because of what they wanted to do. Scepter Publishers. See Pilar Urbano Archived from the original on 10 December Retrieved 28 January Catholic Register.
Retrieved 6 August The Standard. Hong Kong. Bloomberg L. Archived from the original on 15 February Retrieved 2 December Christoph Schonborn, O. Archived from the original on 12 December Julian Herranz , quoted in Javier Espinoza. Archived from the original on 13 May Julia Baird 18 May The Sydney Morning Herald. Continuum Publishing Company. Leslie Crawford 6 October Financial Times London. Retrieved 22 December Elizabeth W. Green 10 April The Harvard Crimson. International Herald Tribune. The Guardian. The Trenton Times. International Herald Tribune. Opus Alegria. Consultado em 25 de agosto de Consultado em 30 de setembro de Que alegria.
BBC News. Kansas City Star. The American. Consultado em 27 de novembro de Eternal Word Television Network. Opus Dei Official Site. Opus Dei website. Consultado em 28 de janeiro de When they became more popular, they supplied a more general public with news about political developments and the Last Judgment. If the visions then lost favor and only die-hard supporters remained, the seers responded once again to believers' personal needs. Such relationships between seers and critical believers have affected the lives and work of virtually all Catholic mystics who achieved fame, for what is at stake is fame itself.
Promoters are critically important for seers whose access to literate, urban culture can only be achieved through others. We know the nobleman. Francis of Assisi primarily through the eyes of those around him. As we look at particular learned believers and their contacts with particular seers, we gradually become aware of a far more general process by which the parties creatively combine suggestion and inspiration. Francis see Kleinberg, Prophets. The first, crucial link between visionaries and influential believers was between the girl from Ezkioga who was the first seer and the parish priest of Zumarraga, Antonio Amundarain Garmendia.
Apparitions with a broad public appeal can be halted with ease only at the very start. The parish priest, usually the first authority to deal with the matter, is of utmost importance. If he is indecisive or reacts positively, the visions can build up momentum before newspapers and diocesan officials notice them. So it was fortunate for the Ezkioga visions that the girl seer found her way to Amundarain, a clergyman influential in the diocese and fascinated by mystical experiences. Amundarain heard about the Ezkioga visions from the woman who brought him milk.
Antonia Etxezarreta, then twenty-three years old, had found out from Primitiva Aramburu, who brought milk from the farmhouse nearest the site of the visions. Primitiva had heard about them from her sister Felipa, who had been with the girl and her brother when they had their first vision. At the rectory she presented the girl to a curate she trusted and liked.
He was inclined to dismiss the matter, but it was Amundarain who was in charge. The next day, July 2, when Antonia brought the milk, Amundarain had her tell him what had happened and that evening he went to observe the visions. Amundarain's past and character are vital to this tale. They explain why he did not dismiss the visions but instead nursed them into a mass phenomenon in the first week.
A priest with intense energy and drive, Amundarain was a born organizer who was also a photographer, musician, and author of religious dramas. In Zumarraga he supervised six clergymen and three houses of nuns. As in the case of other seers who are or who may be alive at the time of this writing, I do not refer to the original brother and sister by name. Left: Antonia Etxezarreta, the milkmaid who connected the first seer with Antonio Amundarain.
Photo ca. Courtesy Antonia Etxezarreta. Right: Antonio Amundarain Garmendia, One of his brothers was a Franciscan missionary in South America, a nephew became a priest, and two nieces were nuns. Amundarain himself was a Carlist-Integrist. Occasionally he contributed to Argia and La Constancia. He read standing up so as not to enjoy the activity too much or waste time. Antonio Amundarain and the priests of his movement were opposed to the subsequent Basque Nationalist alliance with the Republic. In the s this fact colored the attitude toward him of many men in Zumarraga and of the many priests sympathetic to the Nationalist cause.
Amundarain's first post had been as chaplain to the Mercedarian Sisters of Charity in Zumarraga from to and directing female religious remained his true calling. The Mercedarian Sisters came to know the Aliadas well; numerous Aliadas joined the order and the sisters helped to set up Aliada centers in the towns where they had houses. Amundarain eventually wrote a history of the order. In the next two years the lay order quintupled in size, spreading to most Spanish regions.
In the Basque Country Aliadas were established mainly in the provincial capitals, but there were centers in six other towns, including Zumarraga. Each section had a local spiritual director, so in Amundarain had a network of priests with whom he was in close contact. At that time the Basque Aliadas were largely from kaleak , the town centers. For all of the Aliadas Amundarain was a charismatic figure.
With this order Amundarain worked to preserve women frrom corupt modern society, especially its sexual side. And he tried to ensure that these women at least would not make modern society more corrupt. Some women have told me that in those years in the confessional he concentrated heavily on the sins of impurity. And in this sense the Alianza was an extreme expression of a reigning preoccupation. Even for his time, Amundarain's religion was stern and rigorous. Yet this was also a Catholicism bound to the profane world it opposed. The Aliadas themselves were a defense against the enemy of God.
As Amundarain wrote in early , the Alianza was an army of virgins, "of victim souls, a host of love, an oasis of purity, a legion of chaste Judiths and valiant Jeannes d'Arc. We see him posed in photographs with the Aliadas. They retreated to the high. They considered the urban working class almost irredeemably lost. For Amundarain only supernatural help could soften the hardened heart and regain those lost to the church. To maintain and deepen the faith of practicing Catholics, Amundarain placed great value in the spiritual exercises of Ignacio de Loyola.
These were a directed series of prayers and meditations with vivid use of the imagination to draw people out of the everyday world and focus their minds and emotions on the life, passion, and resurrection of Christ. He himself performed the exercises annually. When he went to Zumarraga in , he held them first for teenage girls, then for boys, and in early for adult men and women. No parish priest in the diocese made more energetic use of the exercises at this time; at least no one else published the statistics in the diocesan bulletin.
When Amundarain brought parishioners to the Ezkioga visions, they were well prepared in spiritual imagination. Amundarain also promoted local shrines. A devotee of the Virgin of Aranzazu and a leader of pilgrimages to Lourdes, in Zumarraga he composed a hymn to the local devotion of Our Lady of Antigua and began an annual novena at her ancient shrine above the town.
In June he dedicated the novena to atonement for the burning of religious houses, and an Aliada present remembers him saying when they came to the Litany, "Now, with great devotion, put your arms in the form of the cross. In early he published in the Alianza journal excerpts of a message from a French mystic nun. In we find Amundarain passing out the first Spanish pamphlet about the apparitions of Fatima.
There he sang "Izar bat [A Star]," a hymn. That year a church commission considering the beatification of his uncle had interviewed him for three days. One sticking point for the commission was precisely Antonio Amundarain's enthusiasm for the visions. Other priests, family members, friends, and the people of Zumarraga describe Amundarain as righteous, rigid, discreet, and extremely pious. He traveled throughout the diocese to give sermons and was famous as an effective confessor.
By he was a leader among the clergy who knew how to act with energy and authority. His presence gave the visions a credibility and legitimacy they would otherwise have lacked. We can follow much of Amundarain's involvement at Ezkioga in the press. He took the first seers to find the exact spot where the Virgin appeared, led the rosary, managed the news that reached the crowd, confided to a reporter his hope for a miracle, and retained the children's declarations in written form. On July 28, a month after the first visions, he instructed the public, through the newspapers, how to behave at the site, as if the Ezkioga hillside was his parish church.
This note provoked a public rebuke from the diocese. Thereafter Amundarain kept a lower profile and let his subordinates lead the vision prayers.
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In correspondence and in the Alianza journal Amundarain revealed some of his more private thoughts and hopes about the visions. Tell the sisters to pray a lot …" To an ally in Vitoria he wrote on July "The Ezquioga affair is something sublime, the most solemn act of atonement that Spain now offers to God. The Virgin cannot abandon us. One seer told the Aliadas afterward:. The Virgin was down close. I have never seen her so low, almost touching the ground and in the midst of the Sisters.
She wore her black mantle very loose, and let her white interior tunic be seen, tied at the waist with a white cord, and showing the tips of her bare feet, and with a very pleasant and happy expression on her lovely face, and with a very sweet voice she spoke … and said that she was very pleased with the Alianza, and that the Sisters have much, much confidence in her, and her powerful protection will guard the Obra.
I thank the then director general of the Alianza, Andrea Marcos, for her help. To this message he added, "Can this be true, my little Sisters? Amundarain believed the first seers. He then turned to others, like Ramona. Why was he so soon distracted? Let us look at the seers. The sister was born in , the brother in In this account they shall remain anonymous. When they had their first vision she was eleven and he was seven years old.
Their father had a small roadside bar and they lived upstairs with their four brothers and sisters. The girl was quiet and introverted. The Irish traveler Walter Starkie wrote, "I have rarely seen such a tragic expression on a child's face. She looked as if she had already borne the brunt of a whole life's sorrow. She never fell into a trance when doing so, she remained impassive, and her pulse did not vary.
She never heard the Virgin speak. Her brother was more lively. Starkie described him as mischievous and impudent. The boy rarely fell into anything like a trance. He would simply stop playing, extend his arms and pray during his vision, then go back to playing. He might climb trees as people prayed on the hillside or run off into the woods when people wanted to talk to him.
His visions occurred in various places, especially in apple trees behind his house. He did not hear the Virgin speak. By early September he had had thirty-one visions and believers claimed that he continued having them daily for at least two years. In early he had them during family prayers at night. By then he went to school in Zumarraga.
An older neighbor followed the events closely from to the present. She told me that this family "was very simple, the simplest family around here, so modest and humble. They never liked to stand out. A family always unassuming. For others were hearing messages from the Virgin and providing answers to the public. The voluble seers, not the silent ones, led Amundarain and many others to expect a great miracle in mid-October. Two seers in particular convinced him. She had another on about 6 October In "a pleasant conversation," the Virgin told her, as Amundarain reported to a colleague,.
Born and raised on an isolated farm in Beizama, about twenty kilometers away, she was one of nine surviving children. Before the visions she stood out for her vivacity and her fine dancing more than her piety. When she began to have visions in July she had spent much time away from the farm and had had some contact with the upper classes.
Like other visionaries in July, Ramona wanted to know if there would be a miracle and when it would be. By the end of the month, she was "one of the best known seers," for newspapers had reported nine of her visions. At the beginning of September a Catalan pilgrim wrote that "her prayer consists of an insistent clamor for pardon and mercy for everyone" and that of the seers she was "the only one who sees the Virgin as happy.
About this time Ramona stopped working and moved to Zumarraga, closer to the vision site. There she stayed with her cousin Juan Bautista Otaegui, one of Amundarain's curates, who boarded in the house of Amundarain's brother. She had many followers and for some she provided special messages. Amundarain's niece, the Aliada Teresa, often accompanied Ramona shopping, for Ramona had money from believers.
Ramona gave a sealed letter to Otaegui saying that on October 15 the Virgin would give her a rosary. And on October 13 and 14 she told many people to bring handkerchiefs, for the Virgin was going to wound her. Amundarain had a family lunch to celebrate the saint's day of his mother, and then he, his brother, and his nephew went to the apparition site. After the Aliadas searched her, Ramona went into an outhouse before going up the hillside.
Fifteen to twenty thousand persons, the largest crowd since July 18, had been attracted by the predictions she and Patxi Goicoechea had made about a miracle. Ramona emerged at about P. When Ramona neared the fenced area for visionaries, she lifted her hands. Blood spurted from the backs of both. Men carried Ramona into the enclosure, and there a doctor found a rosary twisted around the belt of her dress.
In an atmosphere of awe and anguish men carried her downhill seated in a chair, like an image in a procession. All the time people collected her blood on their handkerchiefs. Alerted by phone, pilgrims poured in from all over the Basque Country well into the night. See SC E for eyewitness. The Aliadas Amundarain had detailed to observe Ramona were totally convinced. Amundarain reported what had happened and spoke favorably about the innocence of the original seers.
Before starting the proceedings, Echeguren had in hand the letter that Ramona had given her cousin Otaegui. He also talked to a man whom Ramona had told to bring a handkerchief and to her friend from Ataun, whom Ramona had told she would receive stigmata. He then asked Ramona whether she had told anyone about what would happen. She denied three times that she told anyone, and Echeguren became so angry that he broke his pencil. He confronted her with the conflicting evidence, including the letter, and she admitted that she had indeed told people and named still others.
He told her she had been lying and sent her off. At that point a man from Lezo asked to speak to Echeguren in private. He said that the day before he had been next to Ramona when, stunned by seeing the blood coming out of her hands, he had lowered his eyes in awe and seen to his surprise a razor blade on the ground. He had come back to look for it.
To settle the matter, Echeguren asked Montoya to find two doctors, one Catholic and the other, if possible, a non-Catholic, to examine Ramona's wounds. Montoya called in Doroteo Ciaurruz, later the Basque Nationalist mayor of Tolosa, and Luis Azcue from the same city and both examined Ramona that afternoon. That night they reported to Echeguren at Montoya's house that they thought Ramona had inflicted the wounds on herself, most probably with a razor blade. Echeguren immediately drew up a note for the press that said there was positive evidence of natural, not supernatural, causes for Ramona's wounds.
At some time in the fall of Echeguren instructed priests not to lead the rosary at the site and, according to one source, reprimanded Amundarain for his involvement in the apparitions. Ezquioga continues to wind down. New prophecies of something extraordinary, new dates, new preparations, new failures. I continue to believe in a. I find no more reports of Amundarain at Ezkioga.
But he continued to hear the effects of the visions in the confessional. On December 14 a group of Catalan believers visited him. One of them wrote:. There have been countless general confessions, he told us, and they still continue. Even today, he added, there were some in this church. Even men eighty years old have wanted to make a general confession.
He said he believed 80 percent of the seers, but that Freemasons had become involved to discredit the apparitions. By this time both he and Otaegui had broken with Ramona. ARB also mentions the visit. Suspicion of Freemason plots to make the church look ridiculous may derive from the Leo Taxil affair, in which an anticlerical freethinker feigned conversion to Catholicism, got church leaders to believe preposterous stories, and then revealed the hoax Ferrer Benimeli, El Contubernio. A year later, on 16 December , due to stress and ill health, Amundarain resigned as parish priest to devote himself fully to the Alianza, which he did for.
But he did not renounce his hopes for Marian apparitions or his hopes for the role the Aliadas would play. The church is preparing everything for the glorious coming of Mary…. It forms a guard of honor to go out and meet the angels that come with her. It is she herself in person, but she has her precursors, holy women and apostles, who will heal the wounds of the body and the sins of the heart. Amundarain loaned his copy to a fellow priest, Juan Ayerbe, whose niece kindly showed it to me.
See also below, chap.
Críticos do Opus Dei
Antonio Amundarain was prudent in public about the visions. As far as I know, he had little personal contact with the seers, but his sharp attention, foresight, and careful use of the media were critical to the pace and momentum of the visions. Many people thought he was acting on behalf of the diocese. El Pueblo Vasco reported that "it was [Amundarain] who was charged by Vitoria to gather testimony of the events.
Such a procedure was not unusual. Both at Limpias and at Piedramillera bishops instructed the parish priests to take down testimony of seers as if at their own initiative. When Amundarain issued the note on July 28 referring to the commission of priests and doctors as "official," the vicar general immediately issued a denial, disavowing any diocesan connection. Given the vicar general's subsequent total skepticism, it would seem that Amundarain was on thin ice from the start.
But at least in some matters he seems to have worked for Echeguren. That Amundarain had matters in hand probably contributed to the diocese's relaxed attitude in the first months. Amundarain may have told him about Ramona's letter, and he must have let Amundarain choose the women. Two of Carmen's sisters became nuns and a sister-in-law entered a convent when widowed.
In Rafaela Ibarra founded an order, the Instituto de los Santos Angeles Custodios, dedicated to the care of young women in danger of becoming prostitutes. Indeed, Rafaela has been beatified, and when I asked to speak to the family about a relative involved in religious visions, they thought I referred to her. In the early twentieth century the alliance of Andalusian aristocrats with Basque industrialists was not unusual.
The women of both families in this particular alliance had enduring religious interests and a social conscience. Carmen Medina's nephew and niece remember her as loving, high-spirited, and generous, but they were somewhat wary of talking about her, for they also thought her a little unstable and feared her enthusiasms might reflect badly on the family. It was my understanding, although this was left rather vague, that. The family, I gathered, thought of her as a beloved, credulous eccentric.
She had learned this from a male seer, who had it from the Virgin. When the tidal wave failed to materialize, she went back to the seer, who told her and she told her nieces that when he saw the Virgin again, he noticed a tail sticking out from under her mantle and recognized the devil in disguise. In late July Walter Starkie found Medina already ensconced in an Ezkioga fonda with two female companions. She apostrophized the girls who were serving the dinner; she abused the cook; she asked for the priests; she criticized the behavior of some of the young people at the religious service: her resonant voice echoed and reechoed through the house.
I tried to crouch in my corner, but I knew that sooner or later I should be dragged within her sphere of influence and become a butt for her inquisitive questioning. Such people's whole life is so rooted in assertion, that they only hear their own voices. Destiny fortunately deafens them to any other sound. Medina assumed that Starkie was a pious Irish pilgrim, so she made no secret of her politics.
She told him the Republic was a force of Satan. Though [Carmen Medina] was a daily communicant and spent a great deal of the day in prayer, she was a very active and practical woman, and directed many organizations connected with the church and the exiled monarchy…. The Basque province and Navarra, in her opinion, would rise before long in defence of their religion. In my own mind I felt quite convinced that she was doing her best to use the Ezquioga apparitions as a political lever…. And I tell you that in many cases she is appearing, holding a sword dripping with blood.
Starkie saw a kind side as well. Carmen Medina was generous with the poor and spoke easily to everyone she met. She longed for battle, and I saw her nostrils dilate like those of a war-horse when she described how civil war might come in a few weeks, with the Basques as the leaders of the revindication of the Church of Rome. Carmen's family had a tradition of rebellion against liberal governments. Her paternal grandfather was a Carlist general. Her father, Francisco, and an uncle participated in the Carlist rebellion of and as a result her family spent two. One of Carmen's nephews was an active participant, and one of her brothers had to take refuge in France.
For arrest of her brother Luis see VG, 19 November Medina took Starkie in her car to pick up the eighteen-year-old seer and take her to the vision site. By the time Starkie met her at the end of July, she had had seven visions and her name had appeared in print a dozen times.
Her blurry and poignant photograph in El Pueblo Vasco was the first of a seer in vision. She would cry out to the Virgin to save Spain—it was probably this aspect that attracted Carmen Medina—and afterward she would report the Virgin's reaction. The visions exhausted Lolita, but the excitement prevented her from sleeping at night. She told a reporter, "There is no human force that could resist so much magnificence and splendor.
One feels a thousand times more blinded than when one looks at the sun. One night in the room where the seers recovered Lolita declared, "Our Lady has told me that I must come here the next seven days, and I must depart from here and sing for joy in the streets. Starkie played his violin for her that night and left early the next morning. Lolita's name appeared no more in the press after July 31; no one made postcards of her. If she returned the seven times the Virgin requested, I find no record, nor, alas, do I know if she sang in the streets.
Her name meant nothing to the old-time believers left in Tolosa in the s. Lolita was one of several seers that Carmen promoted among friends and relatives. At Ezkioga Starkie met Medina's elderly cousin, the duke of T'serclaes. A sister-in-law, the countess of Campo Rey, was at Ezkioga in December. From El Pueblo Vasco, 14 July Courtesy Hemeroteca Municipal, San Sebastian. Carmen is almost certainly the grand dame a visitor described in early August as "the confidante of the most interesting seers" who assured visitors that the great miracle would come soon.
She took particular interest in two seers from Ataun, both of whom learned "secrets" from the Virgin and claimed knowledge of the timing and content of the upcoming miracle. By early October a girl seer, age eighteen, from Ataun had become inseparable from Ramona. Like Ramona, she too was from a farm and had worked as servant. Her visions had started on July 12, four days before those of Ramona.
They were quite detailed and received wide publicity. The Virgin first spoke to her, she said, on July At the end of the month she was seeing the Virgin several times daily. In August she gave a special blessing from the Virgin to a Catalan cleric who had singled her out of the mass of seers. She claimed to have a vision every time she went to the hillside; by September 27 she had had them on forty-one days. Like Ramona she was conspicuously good-natured and felt no call to the cloisters. This girl, Ramona, and an unnamed Tolosa seer helped one another when in trance.
They stayed together on the morning of October When Ramona's hands started to bleed, the Ataun girl was probably the seer who announced to the crowd, "The Virgin has cut her with swords and now places a rosary around her waist! At that time a family from Bilbao was pampering both the Ataun girl and Ramona. They had nieces the age of Ramona and her friend. On October 16 after the diocesan inquiry into Ramona's wounds, attention shifted to the girl from Ataun. Over sixty thousand persons had gathered on the hillside, and for the first time the seers used a stage Patxi Goicoechea had been building with lumber and manpower from the owner of the land.
Only family members, priests, and reporters could go with the seers on the stage. The seers lined up in late afternoon, and many fell into trance. A medal of the Daughters of Mary on a blue ribbon appeared in the Ataun girl's hands, as if out of nowhere, and shortly thereafter another appeared in the hands of a seven-year-old girl from Ormaiztegi. On Saturday, October 17, yet more people came, most of them unaware of the vicar general's finding about Ramona.
The Ataun girl suddenly lifted one of her hands, which had a little scratch, and said that the Baby Jesus had left the mark with a dagger. We see her the next day in a proud pose with Ramona, both of them discreetly displaying their bandages from a window of the fonda. Shortly after this high point, Carmen Medina began to look after the Ataun girl. His parents were tenant farmers and he was a carpenter on construction jobs. His first vision occurred on 7 July , as he was making fun of the visions of others.
His deep trances became a highlight of the vision evenings. Stern young men from Ataun generally went with him; they would carry him semiconscious down to the recovery room. He became the central figure in the apparitions from early July and was, in the words of the industrialist and deputy Rafael Picavea, "the most famous youth in the entire region.
Except for the two-day parenthesis of Ramona's wounds, the press treated Patxi as the central figure from late July to mid-November. We have seen that it was Patxi, a Basque Nationalist, who came out and said that the Virgin called for the overthrow of the Republic.
He took the initiative in other ways as well. He put up a wooden cross at the site in August, the stage in October, and stations of the cross the following February. Patxi repeatedly predicted miracles, including ones for July 16 and mid-October. Patxi made a large and varied number of friends. Arratia gave 3, pesetas to the seminary fund in BOOV, , p.
Ormaiztegi August 31 : Easo, 17 October When he heard that Patxi had a message for him, Leizaola replied, "Message from the Virgin? I know her too. If she has something important she wants me to know, she will give it to me herself. I am not certain that Patxi went to France, but in any case he passed on the Virgin's instructions for Carmen Medina to take a group of seers to see the bishop.
Francisco Goicoechea second from left and friends at Ataun, October The nickname probably came after his apotheosis on 1 August , when newspapers reported that he had levitated. After that he received large numbers of letters. In the summer of or Carmen Medina organized a bus excursion to Ezkioga for her many nieces and nephews living or vacationing in San Sebastian; they also went to Ataun, where Patxi obligingly entered into a trance.
When they asked what the Virgin had said, one of Patxi's friends said she wanted them to leave the bus in Ataun for the use of the village. Patxi was a complex individual, and those who knew him offer conflicting testimony. Some say he drank a lot; others say he did not. They agree that he attended church, both before and after the visions, and that for a while during the visions he went to church daily.
He was tall and handsome and spoke Basque better than Spanish. With some reporters he was camera shy and defensive, especially when there were questions that implied his vision state might have a component of mental illness or epilepsy. Some remember him as messianic. In the. Like some of the other more dramatic seers, he asked to die for his sins to save the world: "Mother, mother, do not weep, kill me, but forgive the rest, for they know not what they do.
Patxi had his cuadrilla, a friend who answered his mail, and a schoolteacher who took down his messages. He also had the support of priests, at first from his parish, then from elsewhere.
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Therefore he did not need the kind of patronage that the younger or poorer seers did. From the end of August and continuing through early at least, he usually went to Ezkioga on Tuesday, Thursday, and Saturday nights with his friends. By the beginning of he was no longer the center of attention, and by May his nocturnal visions were almost furtive, his small band quite separate from the daytime seers.
Formerly he arrived in a chauffeured car; now he came and went on bicycle after work. I do not know whether the subsequent absence of news about Patxi was the result of his rejection by others or his own self-exclusion. Perhaps the Carlist-Integrist believers, who predominated after , rejected him for his nationalism. Or perhaps he was burned by bad publicity. His public downfall began with that of Ramona. As Catholic newspapers began to feel freer to print negative information, they pointed out that Patxi had made many false predictions.
And when Patxi protested, Picavea ridiculed him for social climbing with Carmen Medina.