Zero negativo (Tavola Rotonda Vol. 7) (Italian Edition)

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In , Merz executed that same surface of progressive growth on a canvas, a true catalyst of material and experience, by reversing and spreading out all the pigments he had bought in the chy of Pisa during the course of a year. The accumulation pro- duced a painting bark "fifteen centimeters [six inches] thick,"' which was scheduled to be shown at the Promotrice delle Belle Arti in Turin; unfortunately, it shattered. This opus testified both to the passage of time, one year, and to the artist's activity during that period.

The consequence was a painting qua vortex, taking in all external and internal factors, traversed by stratifying data and visions that canceled one another out, transcending and negating one another. It was a black hole in space and time, where nothing was static or conscious. The viewer had to enter it and lose his way in order to verify it as an always open transmission network traversed by energies and signs: the pulsation of neon, with its discharge of light, which would pass through the jutting canvases and everyday objects, was affirmed several years later.

Nevertheless, before going on to Merz's great three-dimensional and architectural works, we have to deal with another background factor: the theme of light as a flux that illuminates and joins opposite polarities in order to create a unified physical and intellectual field. In , Merz painted several versions of The Welder II saldatore , the figure of a nocturnal worker, illuminated by the whooshing blowtorch, which shoots out fire and cuts rails.

The depicted light energy stands for motion and its speed; it traverses space and connects two instants or two positions, signaling an interval or making the duration and distance between two facts intelligible. Hence, it is a major instrument of consciousness; in fact, it "illuminates," it institutes the trajectory linking two points, fusing them into a compromise and making them participants in the same continuum.

This total field is a kind of energy cloud: "I see all my output of ," says Merz, "almost like premedieval painting, from an era in which painting, for the medieval world, meant entering a cloud The infinite possibilities of form are then explored from Seed in the Wind Seme nel vento to Tree Albero , both painted in , which pass from Vasily Kandinsky's cult of the nonobjective image to Jean Dubuffet's figurative discursiveness. The incursion across the frontier between figuration and abstraction helps us to imagine indistinct territories teeming with confused things, between painting and sculpture — things like branches and fronds, forests and trees, chestnuts and twigs.

Every entity moves amid similar entities, yet is different because it presents an autonomous form and position while shar- ing the same osmotic pressure. Every entity has an umbilical cord, which ties it to the next one, placing it in sequence as in a series of numbers: we are approaching the neon numbers, according to the Fibonacci pro- liferation. Collection of the artist came from his frenzied discussions, starting in , with Pinot Gallizio, an artist from Alba. Previously, in , Gallizio, who had already met Asger Jorn, had founded the International Movement for an Imagist Bauhaus, which advocated an antifunction- alism close to Guy Debord's Situationist propositions.

Merz has always refused to identify his paintings with the Surrealist and Informel figurations of Jorn and Karel Appel, Con- stant and Gallizio. He claims that his referent during that period was Jackson Pollock, saying that if you consider Pollock it's like Boccioni, but if you consider Appel, its like a certain degeneration of late Picas- so, an Existentialism of the surface. Never- theless, a certain correspondence with the methods of Situationism is obvious in Merz. A distinct rapport can be found in their mutual interest in the interaction between motion and the urban territory.

In fact, in , Debord spoke of the "drift" - a process of random and unplanned move- ment across various spaces, a movement also defined as psychogeographic. The idea is to identify a method of lucidly and dynamically accentuating an urban draw- ing, reacting to it in terms of the found situation.

It is a process of letting go in a random field of energy, a street or a house, outside or inside, in order to find a possible appointment with a mental situation, that of an "experience" on which, subsequently, one can build a new habitat. This motoric denouement within a process of experienc- ing, of feeling found things in situ is, as we have seen, also shared by Merz; except that he does not express himself in kilometric paintings, like Gallizio, or in radiating and polvcentric paintings, like Jorn.

For Merz, making art consists of sowing a forest of inextricable and indistinguishable signs, giving life to a throng of words from the flow of inconstancy, in which gestures and things, put in circulation by the artist, have something of a winding motion that does not differentiate among the various ener- gies.

These can sometimes become percepti- ble and recognizable, in the guise of uncer- tain and changing figures a leaf, a tree, the human shape, a Gypsy wagon, a flowery rock, a seed in the wincT and so on. Nevertheless, the ultimate result will trace a strange and sometimes hazardous geogra- phy, delimiting a territory in which oppo- sites, such as day and night, matter and concept, conscious and unconscious, are able to coexist.

Merz's paintings from to - emblems of his organic rapport with the world and the things around him - are verified even in terms of the artistic activi- ties of that era: for example, European Informel as well as American Action Paint- ing and Abstract Expressionism.

What distinguishes Merz's works? Let us focus on a few telling examples. While Fautrier's Hostages, , and Du- buffet's Texturologies, , with their materials and drips, try to evoke social phenomena, from Nazi massacres of prison- ers to the teeming of urban crowds, Mario Merz's paintings insist on the values inher- ent in the everyday life of the solitary individual.

Contrary to a known and famili- ar reality, Merz's paintings pursue the unfamiliar in everyday experience, the erot- ic, sensual osmosis with the environmental conduit found during his own journey. Fautrier and Dubuffet "document" a histor- ical course, the rhythm of a life that, with a dramatic or candid, a critical or ironic eye, derives from the events of a culture.

On the other hand, Merz, using himself as a sensitive needle, tries to draw a map in which the archetypes of the individual's feeling and living solidify as they move through differentiated territories. Thus, art for Merz is not a narrative; rather, it bears witness to an instantaneousness of time, which can last for days or even months: in a field or in the city of Pisa. Hence, the absence of any swift, rapid gestures that pour or trace signs on a canvas, a la Pollock and Lucio Fontana; instead, we find an obsessive repetition of a linear and chromat- ic drawing that tends to stop only "towards sundown.

The resulting cartography is neither the fabulous and monstrous sensuality of a female body, again as in Dubuffet and de Kooning, nor the political tragedy of Fau- trier or the anguished signs of Francis Bacon; instead, we have a flow of utterly undiscriminated color: a tangle of existen- tial waves, in which Merz takes refuge - a habitat.

When the latter becomes three- dimensional, the term for defining it is the igloo. A final element distinguishes Merz from the artists of Informel and Action Painting: the fusion of the body of the artifice with the canvas is never disrupted. The contact is given not by dry, nervous gestures, like a Fontana slash or a Pollock drip, but by linear actions that tend to remain intact the hand never leaves the drawing , as if they were united by a natural destiny. For Merz, art is thus intensified life, it unrolls with the forces of existence.

It is a "breath from below," to quote Antonin Artaud, 10 a breath in which are stratified the energy currents that activate the vital contexts. Merz populates space and occupies the vacuum, evincing a silence of thoughts and sensations; he accumulates signs in order to set off an explosion of their comptemporary and cohesive force.

He works on the field of energy in order to form groups of meaning, which take in even the insane moments of life. He unites or assembles their unusual and contradictory directions, giving them an unforeseen and astonishing fixity, which defines the work of art. As of Crucibles of Earth and Light It was in terms of the growth of condensa- tion and solidification that the artist de- manded a growth from the canvas.

In , he concentrated a six-inch layer of pigments on the surface. The painting jutted out; but, having become a bark or a crust of earth, it developed cracks and fissures, foreshad- owing the clay igloo, which forms cracks upon drying. Merz thus had to abandon his system in order to make room for a different kind of jutting. He achieved this in when he constructed the Untitled series: white or colored canvases or wicker on wood structures, from which shaped canva- ses jutted out in the form of a cube or truncated pyramid or roof-covered three- dimensional triangle.

Of these "jutting forms," in white canvas or wicker two photographs remain; 11 they were taken in Merz's studio on via Santa Giulia, in Turin, which I had the good fortune to visit during that period. That same year, , Merz exhibit- ed them along with paintings in order to make them easier to read and to clarify their artistic process: The works I made after everything else - the jutting structures - were determined by the presence of flat works.

In the latter, the black sign, summary and flaking, functioned as a margin, and as such, it delimited the planes of the various colored surfaces, showing the need for further development. Thus, in dealing with the operative situation of form expanding into space, the flat paintings were like blueprints for works that are still to be carried out. Its rise indicates the pleasure of the fermen- tation that always activates creative energy, from dawn till dusk, and once again the next morning, and so on, from day to day.

The sculpture, with its volume, thus surges from the painting, with its surface; and from this point on, it is impossible for Merz to separate them. By , the wealth of sensations that were initially registered by the line and the color could no longer be contained; these sensations kept swelling and tended to seek an epidermic fullness that produced effervescences, which Merz fixed in truncated pyramids or jutting triangles. This process seems to reflect the attempt of the painting - a blind and illusory window on the world - to open its shutters and let the light through.

Take Untitled, , with its jutting shape, which is made of interwoven reeds: a fisherman's net basket, which has captured a neon tube, leans against the extreme end of the triangle formed by the shutters. In the Untitled series of , which eventual- ly was inserted into pieces done during the s, the two lateral surfaces are painted with strips and stripes in such a way that the color glides from one to the next, both against and across it, thereby creating an effect that looks like rain, a natural phenom- enon, like color, as an instrument for registering the environment.

Both compari- sons suggest a naturalistic reading of Mario Merz's art; but, as a closer inspection reveals, they are due to the subject matter, leaves and trees, that he used during the s. It would be more interesting to point out that the material and natural metaphor prefigures an organic link be- tween the Baroque discipline of a Borromi- ni and the modernist cosmology of a Gaudi. For Merz, as we have noted, the artwork crystallizes from a trajectory or a parabola: it is based on two points, in space and in time.

Here, space, as in the Baroque, is "that of travel, repetitiousness It dwells on the unusual, validates the ephemeral, threatens the perpetuity of order. But let us go back to Untitled, , in which the elements reveal an energetic density, making it totally different from Merz's earlier pieces. Above all, we note that beyond the interweaving of the jutting structure, the wicker and the neon, this work has other peculiarities. The lateral surfaces have holes covered with scotch tape and revealing haloes that seem to indicate the use of fire.

A similar physical and mental vertigo characterizes the instal- lation On the Street Nella strada , The jutting form is no longer colored or made of wicker; now, it is a white and very tense canvas, ripped and traversed by a wavy neon line and framed above and below by metal bands. The osmosis between the parts is no longer based on the stratification of colors or the expansion of forms into space; it now derives from a transfer: the neon penetrates the volume, leaving rips on the surface and producing a strong energy contrast.

Both pieces thus concretize the work of an assemblage; they combine different symbol- ic and metaphorical materials, various meanings, allowing different realities to coexist. Ultimately, they produce a new vortex, which gathers various products of Merz's artistic language. These are extreme- ly important balancing acts, confirming past motifs and introducing new values, partly in relation to artistic events that characterize Italy, especially Turin.

We must now look at the visual and linguistic aspect of Merz's work. The en- counter of unities of discourse fusing into a whole that becomes a different object is part of the process of dislocation and disorientation triggered by the discourse of historical vanguards, from Dadaism to Sur- realism. Flouting the orthodoxy of the Weltanschauung, it favors an iconoclastic and marginal vision.

Furthermore, the re- course to constructed things the jutting forms, the neon lines or found things the fishing basket expresses a shift towards surprise, but in a contrary way. Augmenting the strategy of assemblage and interweav- ing, the focus thus swings towards a new texture of reality, bringing forth a different 20 Installation, Galerie Sonnabend, Paris, April , including from right to left: Sitin. Courtesy Kunsthalle, Diisseldorf Untitled. January , including from right to left: Carrier Cone Cono portante.

Collection of the artist. The dynamism thereby obtained moves other meanings, which are based on the metamorphoses of things, changes and identities. The resulting effect is that of a semantic instability of substances and ele- ments, as if plural meanings, shifts and performances in perpetual motion opened up before each object. The work becomes an active site of encounter, a metaphor for the conjunction of and penetration by signs, the birthplace of something new.

But in which direction does the crisscross- ing of Merz's signs achieve its configura- tion? What is its cradle? How is it different from the Neo-Dada and Pop ensembles that circulated during the s? The answers lie in the before and after of an Italian henomenon: as of , Turin saw the aunchings of new information enterprises, such as Gian Enzo Sperone's Galleria II Punto. The triumph of these artists in Italy was due to the Venice Biennale of , which awarded its first prize to Rauschenberg. Along with them, articles on Minimalism in Artforum and Art News helped to bring an international context to the Turin art world.

For decades Turin had mediated between Italy and France, concre- tizing its activities in exhibitions and cultur- al centers, such as Michel Tapie's Centre de Recherche Estetique in Turin. But now the Turinese focus shifted from Paris to New York. In this way, the dialogue highlighted a scene that was shared by or imbued with both Poo and Minimalism, yet conscious of possessing an inalienable European identity that was irreconcilable with any other. The year marked the debut of Arte Povera, the theory of which was defined in , with a search for continuous meta- morphoses of languages, accompanied by a transmutation and proliferation that are different from any forms.

The goal was to deviate from the absolutism of mass-media icons, those of popular culture, and to challenge in order to shatter the abstract and linear images of industrial, reductive and Minimalist perfection. Basically, this new movement opposed a monolithic culture that excludes ambiguity and confusion, explosion and deconstruction, irresponsi- bility and material chaos, with all the psycho-physical reversals that these terms imply.

The essence of this shift was the scattering of a potential of figures and images that could circulate in all directions, with no apparent coherence, aside from the iconoclasm of incoherence, as a method of working and creating. The dissemination commenced in Turin during and Their fullness was intensified not only by the interweaving of discordant entities, but also by the addition of a concrete subject - light in the guise of neon, as a disruptive energy.

The theme of light, say fire or a radiant substance, iconographically present in Merz's The Welder, , was a common legacy of Italian artists from Futurism to Spatialism. But it was only with Fontana's Structure for the Ninth Milan Triennial, , that neon, with its coldness, entered the art system, to be followed in by Dan Flavin's gold fluorescent tube. These two artists defined a different use of light as subject matter. In , Fontana, following the premises of Giacomo Balla and Umberto Boccioni, introduced light as a new device, in Spatial Environment; akin to the cut or the hole in the canvas, light helped to create a space or route of maximum flexibility.

It is a fluctuating substance, unlimited, unbound- ed, which the artist, with a gesture, uses to cross the environment. It therefore aimed at upsetting the pictorial space, turning it into a traversable phenomenon. However, Flavin's statements refer to the tautological value of light as an icon, an "anonymous and inglorious" entity, presented by means of fluorescent tubes, their monochromes 21 Untitled.

For Merz, in contrast, light is a fire, creating combustions, altering the composition of the elements, producing tensions by pier- cing and ripping. On the other hand, it is also a vehicle, putting the parts in contact with each other, uniting them, suggesting new totalities. The summary nature of two discordant entities was confirmed in another Untitled, , which I saw in Merz's studio on via Santa Giulia. This piece consisted of two jutting shapes on triangular bases; made of wicker, they were placed near one another, thus constituting a sequence, both of them linked by a horizontal neon tube, which pierced one shape, the space between them, and then the second shape.

Aside from aligning the objects and making them visually compact fire is an alchemical coniunctio accompanying all processes of modification of material , light has a pictori- al character, altering the colors of things: The neon, which casts its violent light on the canvas shapes, also has a sense of violence, which alters the very colors of the materials of paintings.

It is not the problem of color per se that interests me, even though the neon changes the colors of various materials without transposing the image, which is what happens in paintings. It releases a true gaze by revealing the resources of the materials and their perfor- mance. It strikes the surfaces and activates them, qualifying their essentiality, giving them life, naming them, and thereby turning them into writing.

If the principal goal is to interweave multiplicity in order to release its wander- ing energy, Merz's show at the Galleria Gian Enzo Sperone, Turin, re- vealed the vast breath of the artist's new course in relation to objects. He exhibited works dated and ; two of them, Horse Theater Teatro cavallo and Hamper Cestone contained jutting forms, while others, Carrier Cone Conoportante , Lance Lancia and Untitled, involving bottles and neon, did without them completely.

The use of the word "theater" makes Horse Theater a presage of a future evolution that will introduce a continuous variability and mu- tation into the movements of the actors, that is, the components of a work. Nevertheless, those features associated with the word "horse" retain something animal-like, something natural: a feeling that anchors them to an uncontrolled vital sensibility. In addition, the word "theater" also implies the directorial role of the artist, who is called upon to prearrange an activity that celebrates energy and movement, images and performances. The ensemble is formed by a pillow painted red in other versions, it either is white or disappears altogether , an uncovered iron structure recalling the jutting forms of the paintings of and two neon lights, a wavy tube on the wall and a linear one on the structure.

The materialization of a whole, producing a "theater," inspired Merz to look for a "dramatization" that would open variants to the kaleidoscope of combinations and grafts on the wall. The "performers" dem- onstrated agility and movement, dropping down and propping themselves on the floor. They practiced a relationship with the totality of the environment, crossing it without becoming entrenched. Indeed, that same exhibition included Unti- tled, , which consists of a bottle leaning against a plexiglass cube and pierced by a neon tube. This complex object 22 Pierced Glass and Bottle Biccbiere e bottiglia trapassati.

Collection Angelo Baldessarre, Bari Untitled. Collection of the artist is part of a series of installations in which neon joined forces with an umbrella, a glass ana a bottle, a raincoat and a chamber pot. These pieces are blocks, which, by suggesting a different system of associating things, draws different mean- ings from them. Top priority was still given to the continui- ty of energy, already present in the paintings done in "I think that in nature, the elements all crisscross one another.

However, lightning also transfixes; it resembles a Lance, , penetrating bodies and modi- fying them internally. A further meaning originates in the encoun- ter of two registers: the object and the neon light. They have to yield the meaning that is theater and the representation of a coupling in which each loses and gains identity. Everything moves along a line of dialectics: on the one side, marginal objects tied to an organic and corporealfunctionali- tv, which speaks of drinking, urinating, dressing, getting soaked by rain - in sum, living in a daily and common rhythm; and on the other side, the cold, technological abstraction of light, an instrument for exploring the dark, a scientific and sacred device.

Both possess ample virtualities of signification between conscious and uncon- scious, material and immaterial, being and nonbeing - the legacy of an ambiguity sought by historical vanguards from Pablo Picasso to Marcel Duchamp, from Kurt Schwitters to Salvador Dali. However, as we can note, Merz does not pick a strange and unusual object, selected for its exotic character or industrial force; he prefers objects found at home or in a corner to those coming from somewhere else. He circulates his everyday devices, such as his raincoat, then his car, as aids for living.

Indeed, as in his drawings of to , he is always the center and fulcrum of aggregation and sensory elabora- tion in an external stage decoration: the spectacle arises from the trajectories traced by his objects. Ultimately, in this network of associations, the object and the neon light are invested with a flurry of meanings that make them oscillate between dream and reality, paint- ing and sculpture, libido and concept. It was something of an invention - that emerging spurt of wine represented by light, instead of painting. Rather than painting that spurt, I empha- sized the effect of explosion and flight.

It became very sensual, but also nonsensual, because it was reduced to a line. For Merz, sculptures always re- main paintings, but his colors continue to evoke a mobile and active vital force. Red recalls fire, coursing blood and wine.

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It again implies the process of modification and generation, inciting to action and warm- ing up the interiors of bodies. It is also a symbol of warrior ability as well as passion and sensuality. In Raincoat Impermeabile , , the two intersecting neon tubes that perforate the raincoat which Merz discarded after using it were covered with touches of red pig- ment.

They thus evince the artist's inner force and energy as well as his explosion on the outside. This is an artist who identifies himself in the artwork as his habitation and habitat, the raincoat, but who is ready to leave it or set it aside, like a nomad, in order to reach new things. The force of this raincoat is poised disquietingly for all of Merz's creative activity so far. It is his shadow and his imprint. If he left it behind, he would be virtually removing his gaze from the territory of his body, in order to ignore its temporal course. The raincoat thus becomes a presence, dropping from period to period into the work, emphasizing the artist's mobile body, which leaves enigmatic clues in space.

A neat, meticulous reflected image emerges in , , , up to the recent Turbine Turbina , , displaying the estrangement that grazes the artist when he tries to manifest the place of his experience: the body of life. The raincoat is the echo of this body, which is reborn and finds itself again, made recognizable because it is still traversed by energy: the light that is a continuous awakening and illumination. Merz's view differs from that of Bruce Nauman. Both began using neon in , but with diverse goals.

The California artist thinks in terms of decorative culture, he refers to advertising slogans and the city- scape filled with luminous writings. He 23 What's To Be Done? Che fare? Courtesy Kunsthalle, Diisseldorf Cat. Thus, neon is utilized as a potency for information and publicity, able to accept any and all messages. Rather than accelerating the energy, neon cools it down, triggering an implosion of meaning, producing an evanescence of the medium itself for a circularity of the artist's lyrical and poetic thought. Nauman works on his transformism, opting for a writing that, in a world of nonexistence, such as advertis- ing, reintroduces the corporal existence of an artistic being.

This is the very opposite of Merz, who uses that being in order to transcend the distinction between a world of shadow and a world of substance so as to join them together and unite them. Hence, it is not employed as a phantom or absence, but as a gestural and vital presence the course always seems free and subordi- nate to the gesture of the hand, as in a drawing ; it injects an erotic component, a passage between various bodies with differ- ent sensualities. It is something in between, an intermediary that unites and provokes a libidinal spark, a pleasure that passes through the individual subjectivity.

That is why Merz's neon is put to an amorous use, conquering or conquered. It is both ephem- eral and solid. It fuses grace and strength, fatness and skinniness, satisfying all experi- ences. It guarantees the circulation of plea- sure between lovers, because it makes the boiling of sensual energy pass from one body to the other.

Water, here, symbolizes regeneration, raw materi- al, vitality, incessant movement. However, it was also a political boiling in that disrupted civil society, triggering a crisis in behaviors and languages, in attitudes towards power and the family, and inflicting a deep wound on a static society, making it mobile and filling it with conflict.

That was the year in which the old social contradictions fused with the revolt against the authoritarian power of one generation over another. The year brought the explosive rejection of a philistine culture, which failed to recognize the "other" - from the female to the homosexual. This phenomenon, leaving its imprint on all cultural models, had a worldwide diffusion. People spoke of a revolutionary imagination, an image of power and a universal renewal. The refer- ences were to all languages, so that art, too, was affected, undergoing a tremendous but. It opened up to multiplicity, no longer categorizing itself as painting or sculpture; it went into the streets and into the deserts, calling its adventures Arte Povera, Land Art, Body Art, Conceptual Art.

It was a period of feverish experimen- tation, which liberalized the creative processes. Merz, too, experienced the abundance of that time and, as a good seismograph, he registered the situation, integrating it in his work, for example, in Sitin, , and Solitary Solidarity, both - titles deriv- ing directly from actions, events and graffiti of the May uprising in France.

The meaning was politico-existential, the writings were inserted on a wax stratum, which filled up, or a net or in a pot. That is why they were the nutriments, both intellectual and physical, of a society as well as an individual. At the same time, the writing, when placed upon the object, dominated it, tried to make it disappear. It was almost as if the idea and the Utopia, the project and the dream, written but not experienced, betrayed sensitivity and delica- cy.

Merz's reading was meticulous: illusion crumbled, because it was mental, cerebral, and not experienced; it remained an Unreal City Cittd irreale , Merz feels the danger of opening art to the dominion of the thinker and the ideologue, which was emphasized by the arrival of Conceptual Art on the visual scene. Merz reacted by minimizing the efficacy of the idea qua word, which could easily devour the object, and by constructing a real world: the gallery. First in order discard the jutting plane or wall plane and create a space independent of the process of hanging things on the wall or nailing them to the wall and putting them on a table.

Hence, the idea of the igloo as the idea of absolute and self-contained space: it is not modeled; it is a hemisphere placed on the ground. I wanted, the hemisphere to be nongeometrical, so the hemispherical shape created by a metallic structure was covered with sacks or shape- less pieces of material such as soil, clay or glass.

Then I began the work of writing on this structure. I felt it was so important to be able to write in an absolutely static form like neon. It works with limits, such as the perimeter of a painting, marking the boundary between full and empty. It is a magnet, accumulating tensions and weights, thoughts and ges- tures, whose osmosis is energetically de- fined with the breath of the circumference, which, being elastic, vibrates under the pressures of clay or glass.

As a den and a cathedral of survival, shielding against winds and artistic stress, the igloo is the image of the nomad and the vagabond, who believes not so much in a secure object as in a dynamic and contradictory existence. As we have already emphasized in regard to Merz's works of the s: for the nomad, existence means moving in a con- text and reinventing for oneself an osmosis with food and nature, landscape and local people, without crystallizing as anything definite or stable.

By the same token, his structures are not likely to endure; rather, they emerge from the accumulation of items necessary for his survival. Merz, a nomad in painting, became a builder of igloos: You have to construct in a way that is antithetical to present-day models. Con- struct with processes of development and withdrawal, by deploying willpower and subduing will power, in a natural breath, day and night.

The materials are chosen from one time to the next, dictated by fate, by the location, by the adjacency of other elements, by the plants Constructing is an hour-by-hour and day-by-day need to fuse your will with everything that is dispersive in life. The erection of the igloo thus responds to personal and social needs, while remaining open to symbolic and cosmic interpreta- tions. The dimension of the igloo is mythi- cal and moves through time, which is why its re-creation preserves the engima of an active but spent life.

Thus, the clamps and arches forming its bark or defensive crust can bear painted glass and mats, bite and fix canvases and twigs, gather stone slabs and glass, car doors and wax surfaces. Everything is reduced to the enigma and magma of nomadic energy, in which signs form images that combine miserable yet vital and present materials. Giap Igloo bore the sentence "Se il nemico si concentra perde terreno, se si disperde perde forza" If the enemy masses his forces, he loses ground; if he scatters he loses strength. The first igloo was a semicircular structure bearing a net on which Merz had placed lumps of clay that eventually dried; the words "objet cache-toi" object, conceal yourself were written on the clay.

The second igloo was made of lumps of clay held together by cellophane bearing the Giap script. In the system of political and sensory hopes created that year, , the mutual support between the affirmation of a closed and compact hemispherical world, the meta- phor for an individual habitat, and the assumption of a collective consciousness by means of the harmony of writing demon- strated that, for Merz, art has never been a happy island, an art for art's sake that does not participate even minimally in the histor- ical parabola; rather, it is a speaking and 25 Merz incising Traces lracce on wall in San Benedetto del Tronto, V 7 T Traces Traccej.

Giap, a Vietnamese general, and the artist, both of whom think of mounting an attack on all the structures of political or visual oppression, not simply in terms of violence, but in terms of force in a dialectical relationship with the enemy and the context. As a place of salvation and energetic declaration, the igloo is a pure testimony to trust amid insecurity.

Merz regards the artist's destiny as an essentially anarchic enterprise, which rejects any kind of author- ity or set of rules, proliferating where there is no security. Gratuiti sono anche alcuni programmi per la manipolazione dei files. Tuttavia proprio Free OCR 4. NET Framework 2. Prima di avviarne l'interpretazione OCR, la pagina. Come lettore per libri elettronici. Semplici, ma molto interessanti appaiono anche Simple Spreadsheet 1. Come programma off-line si segnala Grafici 1.

On-line si possono indicare diversi servizi: 1 con Create A Graph nces. Simile, anche nel nome, PhotoFiltre Studio 7. In entrata, oltre ai files. Ovviamente un uso efficace e completo del prodotto presuppone una certa conoscenza di grafica vettoriale e un discreto apprendistato. La guida presente all'indirizzo grafica. Gli strumenti sono ridotti all'essenziale, ma permettono comunque al prodotto di rivaleggiare con costosissimi software commerciali, come 3D Studio Max e Maya. La traduzione italiana dei comandi appare sicuramente funzionale ad un uso didattico; ad es.

E le stesse caratteristiche di previsione del programma aiutano molto utenti inesperti. Il programma esporta i propri lavori in file 3D. Molti interessanti modelli realizzati con SketchUp si trovano anche nella galleria di immagini "3D Warehouse" di Google sketchup. Questi ultimi programmi naturalmente possono essere a loro volta presi in considerazione per produrre oggetti 3D, a patto di avere le risorse finanziarie per il loro acquisto. E' possibile: 1 inserire e modellare cubi, sfere, coni, cilindri, curve, poligoni; 2 operare smussature, torsioni ed estrusioni; 3 suddividere superfici; 4 gestire le textures da applicare agli oggetti; 5 mostrare i modelli secondo diverse viste frontale, posteriore, sinistra, destra, alto, basso, camera 1, light 1 e proiezioni ortogonale, prospettica ; 6 inserire fonti di luce; 7 muovere, ruotare e ridimensionare gli oggetti; 8 importare modelli.

Una fornita galleria di modelli aoi. Il software richiede un minimo di pratica e di esperienza con la grafica in 3D, ma bastano comunque pochi minuti per prendere confidenza con i menu e le opzioni. I modelli creati possono essere salvati nello standard Pixar Renderman Interface ed esportati in formato.


Con PicPick sono catturabili: lo schermo intero; la finestra attiva anche scorrevole ; un'area rettangolare anche fissa dello schermo; un'area a mano libera. Gli altri strumenti compresi sono: un avanzato editor di immagini integrabile con una comoda Barra degli strumenti ; il selettore e la palette dei colori; la lente d'ingrandimento; il righello dei pixel; il rapportatore e i crocini Naturalmente le numerose hotkey previste possono essere impostate liberamente dell'utente.

Le schermate catturate sono registrabili come files. E' evidente il possibile uso del programma come creatore di anteprime di immagini o per scalare correttamente le nostre creazioni grafiche. Infine i principali formati di output sono. Le immagini create da Drawing For Children vengono salvate nella sottocartella "pictures" in formato Bitmap Pict1.

E' possibile inserire proprie immagini nel programma rinominandole opportunamente ad es. Adatto a bambini da 3 a 12 anni, il prodotto ha vinto diversi premi internazionali tuxpaint. I pennelli sono integrabili, possono cambiare forma ed essere animati. Le forme sono vuote o riempite e sono ruotabili opzione disattivabile. Numerosi font arricchiscono lo strumento di testo, grazie al quale le scritte e le etichette sono modificabili nelle dimensioni e nello stile neretto, corsivo. Gli effetti speciali le "magie" sono molto divertenti e sono particolarmente amati dai bambini.

Sopra una lavagna realistica che costituisce l'area di lavoro , si trovano, come icone, gli strumenti "Matita", "Gomma", "Secchiello" e "Righello"; sotto la lavagna ci sono 7 quadratini per la selezione veloce dei colori rosso, verde, blu, giallo, viola, nero e bianco. All'avvio il software presenta una finestra con 3 barre: 1 una barra dei menu; 2 una barra degli strumenti; 3 una progress bar. Altre finestre appariranno quando si caricheranno immagini, si realizzeranno istogrammi e grafici, si faranno misurazioni. Nel menu "File" troviamo le seguenti voci: 1 "New" creazione di una nuova immagine o di un nuovo "stack" ; 2 "Open", "Open next", "Open samples", "Open recent" apertura di immagini, esempi, files recenti ; 3 "Import" importazione di svariati oggetti, tra cui immagini.

Gli altri menu sono "Analyze", "Plugins", "Window", "Help". A questo proposito, un manuale completissimo su ImageJ svg. Le finestre con i comandi possono essere nascoste, in modo da concentrarsi unicamente sul disegno a pieno schermo; sempre a tale scopo, tutte le funzioni principali sono raggiungibili con tasti di scelta rapida.

Il programma importa immagini. Un discorso a parte merita Quick Picture Tools www. Entrambe le applicazioni permettono la costruzione di modelli virtuali utilizzando mattoncini. Ci sono poi diversi settaggi riguardanti le caratteristiche 3D. I lavori realizzati possono essere stampati o salvati nel formato. Per il resto le funzioni sono esattamente le stesse di BlockCad. Si aggiungono 7 accurati strumenti di selezione, essenziali per la modifica delle costruzioni prodotte. I modelli sono salvabili e richiamabili nel formato proprietario.

Le varie fasi della realizzazione di un oggetto possono essere salvate come immagini. Colorun permette la distinzione dei colori e delle loro diverse gradazioni e combinazioni e il loro mescolamento su una tavolozza. I motivi di sfondo possono essere agevolmente selezionati e ruotati prima dell'applicazione al disegno. NET 3.

Shot 1. Net; 37 Text To Image Converter 1. Cartine della Germania sono state usate per il programma Germania - Stati Federati 1. Mapas Interactivos mapasinteractivos. In Target Map www. GmapGIS www. All'interno del sito GeoGuessr www. Pat ian. Tutti gli stati del mondo e intere aree territoriali ian. SweetHome3D, disponibile anche in versione "portable" www. Gli oggetti presenti sono centinaia, sono divisi in 10 categorie Bagno, Cucina, Esterno, Luci, Miscellanea, Porte e finestre, Soggiorno, Stanza da letto, Ufficio, Veicoli e vanno disposti nello stage 2D una volta definite le stanze con i muri e i tramezzi.

Nella parte in basso a destra viene visualizzata in tempo reale un'anteprima 3D, mentre in basso a sinistra viene integrata a mano a mano una lista degli elementi inseriti con i relativi parametri modificabili. Per i nostri scopi di creazione di oggetti di apprendimento sono molto utili le opzioni di: 1 stampa del disegno 2D su.

Reconfiguring the Margins

Infine si aggiungono gli elementi di arredamento e gli accessori, prelevandoli dalle altre librerie, ed eventualmente si modificano i colori e le trame di ogni elemento del modello muri, porte, finestre, pavimenti, soffitti, arredi, accessori e si inseriscono le quotature e i testi. La libreria degli oggetti comprende 6 categorie: "Industry" 10 items , "Park" 15 items , "People" 2 personaggi , "Site" 18 items , "Town" 10 items , "VirtualFair" 4 items. Bisogna peraltro fare attenzione a non installare, durante l'esecuzione del file di setup Ludiplan.

Per il resto il programma: 1 permette di creare e gestire diversi tipi di oggetti rettangoli, linee, cerchi, rettangoli arrotondati, archi, poligoni, forme a mano libera , testi in formato semplice o. In output si possono stampare modellini da ricostruire con carta, forbici e colla, ma si possono salvare i propri lavori anche come immagini. Basta inserire le misure della stanza e quindi disegnare i vari elementi usando gli strumenti della sezione "Draw" in alto a destra oppure trascinare gli oggetti della barra "Items".

Alcuni elementi presentano frecce per il loro orientamento. Il cestino in basso con la scritta "Trash" serve per eliminari gli oggetti. Il tasto "Reset" ripulisce l'area di lavoro. Nella conversione in. Nelle pagine possiamo inserire cornici di testo, cornici immagine, tabelle, 18 forme diverse, poligoni, linee, curve di Bezier, linee a mano libera. Tuttavia PagePlus SE www.

PagePlus SE permette: 1 la gestione delle tabelle; 2 l'inserimento di numerose forme modificabili tra cui stelle e spirali ; 3 la correzione automatica e la modifica artistica dei testi con colorazioni, sfumature e riempimenti ; 4 la definizione e l'uso di pagine mastro. Tra i programmi commerciali va citato AmicoPrint , della Garamond www. Il software unisce testi, clipart, disegni e fotografie in modo da formare vivaci libri divisi per capitoli e sezioni e arricchiti da cornici artistiche.

Sono a disposizione degli utenti diversi modelli con spazi appositamente predisposti per accogliere le immagini. Con le sue 35 librerie grafiche in formato. Interessanti in ambito educativo sono, oltre alla libreria "Diagrammi di flusso", anche le librerie "Assortito", "Cronogramma", "Mappa, Isometrica", "Mosaico", "Scala" e "Varie", tutte contenenti immagini scalabili.

Tutti gli oggetti possono essere inseriti in qualsiasi colore selezionato e con le linee in 5 spessori differenti. Diagram Designer crea diagrammi ER, UML e di flusso, sequenze di diapositive e schemi generici, e importa ed esporta in. Nella costruzione dei disegni ci aiuta un'ampia libreria di oggetti predefiniti ma personalizzabili a piacere dagli utilizzatori : basta trascinarli nell'area di lavoro, modificarli opportunamente aggiungendo ad esempio il testo necessario e unirli con frecce e collegamenti.

Oltre agli elementi della libreria predefinita sono inseribili negli schemi linee, frecce, connettori, curve, testi, ellissi e rettangoli. Flessibile e potente, CMap Tools, sviluppato sulla base degli studi di Joseph Novak dall'Institute for Human and Machine Cognition della Cornell University of West Florida, permette la creazione di mappe concettuali nodi e relazioni tra nodi semplici o complesse, che poi possono essere condivise con altri utenti direttamente sul web.

Ogni mappa creata o aperta viene visualizzata in una finestra indipendente. Il doppio click del mouse sul "Nuovo concetto" creato determina la modifica del testo. Da un "concetto" si possono creare facilmente delle "proposizioni", cliccando con il tasto sinistro sul concetto e cliccando ancora sul rettangolo con le due frecce che appare in alto. Tenendo premuto il tasto sinistro del mouse, basta muoverlo per ottenere un nuovo concetto unito al precedente da una freccia e da un rettangolo di collegamento, contenente una "frase legame".

Naturalmente gli altri strumenti e le altre opzioni disponibili sono innumerevoli. Le mappe mentali create possono essere rappresentate graficamente con struttura ad albero ed esportate in numerosi formati, tra cui. Si tratta di un gestore di mappe mentali con un'interfaccia piuttosto pulita e chiara. Molto semplice da usare, Edraw Mind Map mette a disposizione degli utenti numerose funzioni: 1 esportazione delle mappe in formato immagine.

Il limite maggiore appare proprio l'assenza di una versione localizzata italiana. Una mappa editabile creata con Edraw Mind Map e dedicata allo studio delle regioni italiane strategiedimamma. Scritto in Java, il programma permette il salvataggio in. Si possono inserire allegati, collegamenti a grafici, nodi con nuvole e molto altro. L'implementazione oculata dei tasti funzione F1, F2, Le mappe vengono create semplicemente premendo il tasto TAB, mentre il tasto INVIO viene utilizzato per inserire argomenti topic principali e secondari.

L'uso di software professionali molto costosi Finale, Sibelius, Cubase non sempre rappresenta la soluzione migliore per gli operatori scolastici; e gli stessi alunni, posti di fronte a programmi complessi e specialistici, difficilmente si avvicineranno al mondo affascinante della composizione audio e midi. Saranno riportate tuttavia le caratteristiche di alcune applicazioni commerciali Cakewalk Pro Audio, NoteWorthy Composer, Band-in-a-box, GnMidi particolarmente interessanti dal punto di vista didattico e probabilmente non sostituibili completamente da programmi gratuiti dello stesso tipo.

Tra gli effetti avanzati applicabili da Audacity ricordiamo quelli di eco, esaltazione dei bassi, wha wha , phaser, riproduzione al contrario. Il nuovo contenitore multimediale libero. Per il resto, gli effetti prodotti dalle indicazioni di "staccato", "accentato", "crescendo", "diminuendo", "rallentando", "accelerando" sono reali ed evidenti nei midi 0 o 1 prodotti. Il programma visualizza i files midi. DigiPiano sourceforge.

Sempre creato in linguaggio Java, MyJavaPiano 2. Do, Famin7 o Do13b9 e scegliere uno stile a piacere: per il resto il programma genera automaticamente un arrangiamento professionale completo. Una serie estesissima espandibile di stili accompagna il software e permette a Band-in-a-box di produrre brani di qualsiasi tipo Jazz, Pop, Country, Classico, Religioso, Rock, ecc.

Ci permettiamo di suggerire un inserimento discreto di elementi video nei nostri oggetti di apprendimento, anche per non aumentarne eccessivamente dimensioni e pesantezza. Riparleremo successivamente di Flash, dato che rappresenta un vero e proprio ambiente di programmazione che si presta a innumerevoli usi. Immediatamente di seguito riporteremo e descriveremo invece alcune applicazioni gratuite che possono risultare utili per preparare animazioni, ma non garantendo per esse in assoluto risultati soddisfacenti in ogni sistema operativo e in qualsiasi condizione e ben sapendo che alcuni software commerciali come Pinnacle Studio e Nero Vision sono obiettivamente inarrivabili e irrinunciabili nel caso si vogliano ottenere risultati professionali.

Windows Movie Maker gestisce i formati audio. Synfig Studio permette di ottenere animazioni fluide senza doverne disegnare individualmente ogni fotogramma. Le tecniche di trasformazione morfologica passaggio tra due immagini e di ritaglio piccole modifiche applicate nel tempo a un'immagine consentono una facile creazione dei necessari fotogrammi intermedi. Occorre comunque una certa pratica per l'utilizzo efficace del programma, certamente non adatto a bambini e adolescenti. E' possibile importare immagini create da GIMP o nel formato. Il programma utilizza il formato immagine.

Pur non offrendo caratteristiche paragonabili a prodotti professionali come Adobe Premiere, edita i video in modo veloce e lineare e permette di elaborare numerosi formati ampiabili da filtri forniti da terze parti. Il software funziona grazie a script in formato. L'uso in ambienti didattici appare piuttosto problematico, tuttavia la formazione specifica al software di un operatore scolastico permetterebbe la soluzione dei vari problemi di composizione video che si presentano periodicamente nelle scuole. All'indirizzo www. NET Framework e si occupa specificamente dell'inserimento e della modifica di sottotitoli nei video.

Mpg2Cut2 2. E' possibile importare video, ridimensionarli, riprodurli in tempo reale, tagliarne alcune parti e molto altro. Ulteriori servizi on-line saranno illustrati quando si descriveranno i generatori di presentazioni e contenuti multimediali. In un file. Le altre caratteristiche del software sono: 1 supporto dei files. Il software, disponibile anche come portable, presenta avanzate funzioni di editing ed encoding. In particolare: 1 apre, crea, decompatta e modifica files. Maggiori formati, sia in apertura. I files della nostra applicazione vengono impacchettati in un unico file.

Questi oggetti possono essere: 1 modificati, corretti, ampliati; 2 spostati; 3 riutilizzati in contesti differenti. A ogni evento di un oggetto ad es. Nella pratica vari oggetti indipendenti interagiscono tra di loro e modificano il loro aspetto e comportamento in base al verificarsi di determinati eventi regolati da un codice associato. Nell'agosto , con Visual Basic 4.

La versione definitiva Visual Basic 6. Visual Basic. Si potrebbe continuare nella descrizione del software e del linguaggio di programmazione, ma appare maggiormente opportuno in questa sede evidenziare i vantaggi e gli svantaggi legati alla scelta e all'uso di Visual Basic come ambiente di programmazione per lo sviluppo di software didattici. Ma sono presenti in vbscuola anche diversi manuali per apprendere la programmazione nelle precedenti versioni di Visual Basic www.

All'interno di questo progetto, numerosi programmatori hanno realizzato oltre applicazioni per tutti gli ambiti disciplinari. Hanno poi collaborato al sito vbscuola. NET Framework. Borland Delphi 8 non poteva compilare applicazioni native. Tralasciando l'ibrido rappresentato da Delphi , giungiamo alle recenti versioni , , , , XE, tutte capaci di supportare. A livello didattico possiamo dire che sono state utilizzate soprattutto le versioni 3, 4, 6 e 7 da alcuni programmatori che hanno visto in Delphi il modo per realizzare applicazioni flessibili, stabili, veloci e compatibili con qualsiasi sistema Windows.

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Quasi tutti i programmi didattici freeware realizzati da chi scrive www. Sempre nel sito www. Per il resto hanno adoperato Delphi per le loro applicazioni didattiche freeware anche: Andrea Floris www. In particolare i pregi principali di Delphi sono: 1 alto numero di componenti disponibili si veda il noto "repository" www. Questi software autore saranno attentamente considerati e descritti in seguito. Senza bisogno di alcuna registrazione, una volta inserito il link del sito da analizzare, vengono mostrate in un'unica schermata navigabile 7 finestre con le seguenti risoluzioni: x, x, x, x, x, x, x Si possono impostare e provare anche nuove risoluzioni aggiungendole a quelle standard tramite il pulsante "Customize".

Similmente Browserbite app. Il programma funziona con il meccanismo del "drag and drop" e comprende anche una funzione di cattura di schermate. Bisque tuum decies non toto tabuit anno. Adde Ovid. Sic Properl. I, Iasonls bospltio excepli amore correpta contabult, i'snnomord. Tabens divum nexio. Mull, et in Contubemalis p. Sed recentiores etymologi tabulam et tabernam a communi radice Skr.

Stricto aensu. Taberna appallatlo declarat omne atile ad babitandum sdificlum, nempe ex eo quod tabulis clauditur. Taberna olim appellabantur adicula plebejarum parva el slmplices in vicis, asswibus et tabulis clause. Boral, 1. Pallida more aqao pulsat pede pauperura tabernas Segumque turres. Fortasse et illud ejusd.

No qulcumque deus, qulcumquc adhlbebitur beros, Regali conspectus in auro ouper et ostro Migret in obscuras bumill sermone tabernas. Iostructam et et ornatam, medicins exsrnenda causa, tabernam dedil. Instructam tabernam sic accipimus, qua et rebus el hominibus ad negoiiationam paralis coastal. Taberna llbrarla. Varro 7. Midi, el Herat. Pompon, ibid. Tabernas non vinariai solum, ut nunc diclmus, aed omaes, qaa sunt popularia usus, auctoritas Romana patefeeit- Varro de vita pnpull Rom.

Hoc Intervallo prlmum forensls dlguitaa crevit atque ex taberolf lignela argentarla facta. Tabernam exercere. Devertere In tabernam. Tabsrna erant elrea forum. Adde Inscript. Alia apud Gruter. In Us olim ludot lltterarloa fulsse, Indicat Liv. Dicilur de fornlee et lopanerl. Dyrrhacbium vocat Hadriai tobernain, quia Ibl etat emporium, quo eonveniebant popull mare Htdrlatlcum accolentea, omne genna mercea coetnpturl. Quid taberna eb officina dtfletat, In ea voce dictum est. Pro ea tamen allquando ponllor. Nam Win. Vaia ex arganto Firmiana, Clodiana, Gratiana.

De nom. Alii leg. Quam lectionem conflrmat Inscript. Cognolati puef. Tabernacula dicuntur a simllitudina labernarum : qua ipsa, quod ex tabalis olim flebaut,' dicta 3unt: non, ut quidam pntant, quod tabulis chudoatur. Sigoo profectlonla det. Resentibui snspilibas tabsrnacula Obnsttata. In if. Tcioi disi In litore, tabernaculo pos'uo, pupotsbat. Svatusre tabernaoulnrB. Jnclsii Sibcrnaculorum funibus, sulsmsl soriia cooparlos' trucidabant. Mitt, nat. Noinaiss in tabasilisulls vivon!

Auctor fuit, ut piooonsulibui ad znulos st tabernacula, qua publico locari uolebanl, cerla pecuuia constiluaratur. Eeinde 'jinat decemriros taturoscjlis etc. Qui In una pbilosopbia quail tabernaculum vitas sub collocarnnt. In Anna! Comiliorum die exereltum Imperarl moi erat, qui presidio esaet, dum popului ferendls tolTraglli oecupabatur. Ki ret taberDaculnm, allquo pomrerll loco italutum, intrabat, quod ante civet armati tub lignii conveDiebant. Id labernacalum auiplcalo conitiluebaSur : il quid contra receptoi rltui admiatum eiset, Titlo captum dicebatur et comitia dirimebat aut vltlo creatoi fuiiie magistrates declarabat.

Cic 1. Qoum taberoaculttm vilioeepiiietimprudeni. Quod C. Curtlua, qoi comttili praafuarat, parum recta tabernaeolum cepliset. Qnld iclre baruipicea da tabemaeulo recta capto potuerontl Adde 2. Vulgat, interpr. Speciatlm ait taberna, lottega. Balnea et tabernacala In nonam ntque elanduntor. Pro caslo lidareo vldetur ana in illo A. In iota poioit tabernaculum inum. Cur tam abaurdli tamque Hberoariliblanditiia lubagitarem? Putsch, et Feit. Eit mulier, qute tabernaro babet mercimonli eujuieumque eiercendi cauia, etiam In malam partem, ic.

Adde Scholiast, ad Juvenal. Item tabernariorum an. Ttooernarsui, m, m. Eit qui tabernam quallicumque merclum geoerii eiercet, bottegaio, lavernaio, xa'mjXoe. Opifices et tabernarioi atque illam omnem faseem elvilalum, quid eit negotil eoncitare? Niii ego com tsber— — Lai. Caupo, tabernarius peisimui. Caupooet, tabernarii, qui vinum adulterum vendunt.

Bit etiam qui tabernai ambit, lion. Popinonci vel bi,quoi dlcimoi tabernarioi a poplnii; vel luinrkul, qui la popinli dedant. KaTnjXoSu'tijf, ganeo, tabernarioi. V voo. Eit qui tabernai freqnentat; hinc goloiui, loxorioiui, potator, ganeo. Eit etiam qoi vinum vel alia vendlt. Latin, p. Tabernolai effrlngere at eipilare. Adde Ulp. Varro 5. TABES, it, f. In App. Brambaeh p. Quom bsc genera table aint. Imbribus et labi nimborum arboita vacillant. Attach, eumque lecuti non pauei tabe legont: at similiter product oltimam, ut In fame, obiervaot. Sic apud Aicuv. Sunt tamen qui leg.

Bit super interna tabes et elvica volnui Invldla augebanU Alii vero label. Sane tabes et label UBpiiiime io librii commutantor; ted label habet locum, cbl rotna et pernlciei ilgnlfioatur: tabei, nbl corroptio et contaglo. Per nudam glaclem fluent em que tabem liqueicentii nivis ingredlebantur. Seneca 4. Estate prima maxima: et Integra adbuc nlvei: ex molliiiimoque tabei eit.

Per cumuloi corporum et tabera aaoguinls lequentei hoitem. Cujus aceti aiperitas visque in tabem margaritaa reiolvit. Speciatlm eit humor corroptus et corrumpem, taniei, tabum, marcia, marciume, udpavotf. Putrii tabei arborii. Argentuin vivum exeit ac perrumpit vaia, pernianam tabe dira. Liv Area, quas titulum lepulti t-egii babuerat. Tabei mercium. Inter, j animalii lnficitur et abiumilur. Boa necat afflatoi funeiti tabe venanl.

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Tinctaqne mortlfera tabe tagltta madet. Seneca Sere. Mina ait palla tabe Nenea illlta. Dentei, flammti indomlti, eavantor tabe piinltta. Eit etiam morbi genus, quo paullatim eorpoi abmmltur, cachessia, tiiica, tisichezza. EJui trei daacribit apeciei Celt. Rabat ardorem libido, levitatem leatitia gestlem, humllitatem metoi: ied sagrltado majors quasdam, tabem, cruciatum, affllclatlonem. Penitai vliceribui iroraiiia tabei qoolldie allquld ex homlne praamittit in mortem. In tssdio vltee fames Ienta not eoniumit tabe.

Tabei oculorum apud Tac. Eadem ratione tabei in arborlbai dicitur, quom inareisunt et paullatim deficiunt. Inarescunt arbores etc. Tabes soli, terra iqoalor et iterilitai, ubl nullum gramen provenit. Baslllico muitelarom virai exltio at. Bic que prima eapot movit da pulvere tabei, Aipida tomnlferam tnmida cervice levavlt.

Figurate dicitur de alili, otl sunt corrupted, contaglo, peitti, morbrn. Qui qoidem moi, nti tabei, in Urbem coierit. Propter banc tabera atque perniciem domui totiai. In urbe Iniidentem tabem creicentii in dlei fenorli pati. Infecit ea tabei legionnm quoque motai jam mental. Ut quomodo vii morborum pretia medentibus, lie fori tabei pacuniam advocatii ferat.

Tabei animl contrectata adurit. Adde Liv. Tabetcent et Tabetcendua I. Frigoribui durescit humor: et Idem vicliiim mollitar teperactui et tabeicit calore. Ignl Cera auper calido tabescem multa liqueieft. Ficui in Jure tabeicunt. Sal tabeicit. Cas, Odor tabesceatium membrorum. Tabeicunt vulnera.

De morU persec. Tabeicenda viscera. Trauilate est tolvi, minul, interire, derlcere: et refertur etiam ad animum, mancare, iminuini, languite, contumarti. Prajitatur laui virtutl, ied multo ocloi veroo gelu tabeicit. Quail leoex tabeicit diei. Ego qui tuo mcerore maceror, macesco, cooseneico el tabeico miser, ossa atque pellis mm miiera macritudine.

Tabeicere molesllls. Quodque aliens capella gerat dittentlni uber, Tabeicat. Ne patiantur, deiiderlo tui Catillnam miserura tabeieere. AtU Tabeicere dolore ac roiieria. Absque ullo egressus effectu delude tabeicat immobilit. Barea tabeicat. Pompei plat. Aiellia taheBeat. Ilia quidem loterea fama tabeicet Inani, llao tua ne virtue Oat amara lib!. Nobii In bac calaroitate tabecendum ett. A Active eit tabeni afferens, tablficue. Tabida coninmit ferrum lapidemque vetuttas. Beeate pallenti tabida forma. Lentom et tabidum venenum. Indigoas premeret peitie quam tabida fnneee.

JBn, Tabida luei. Seneca Here. B Passive eit liquatua, liquefactui, liquefalto. I, Propria. In lev! Speciatim est tabe Infectus, reiolutui, corruptui. Seneca QZdip. Kt felle. Deficit paitor grege deminuto, Tabidoi inter moriem Juvencos. Pernlci orbifibor liberorum lelo et tabincabill. Tramlate- -tugustin. Ill anima veniret ad banc inllriuitaloin ct tabiflcationem. De pecc, mer. Occulta is bo carnalii concupiscenlia sua tabiiicavit in ie oiuues de sua alirpe veolentes. Terrcna desercni sobtiliuimai operalionet virlulum divino limore tabellcatus.

Seneco UZdip. TabiCca cieII vilia. Ouaque dinolveni cum curpore UbiQcut tepi. Tabiiicui ser, — — Sueton. Venenum lentum alque tabificum. Hlephanlis terram edlsie tabiflcum est. TablQca urlna. IL Translate. Tabiflca; pertiirbationes mentis, teil. Confetti 6. Cogitationum tablficarom febribui sstuare. Liror, tabiflcum malii venenum, Intactli vorat oiiibus medullas. Tablflum morbui. Alica pecnllariter longo morbo ad tabitudinem redactls subvenit.

Adda Fulgat. Tabitudo enlm et more Imminet, la mandatil. Supple ex Graco fonts perinane. Legitur tainen apud Julian. Consulibm iCEeptrum, meniii deens, arms tabllilia, Dltcolor et tabula caJculus inde datur. In Corp. Bern, p. Keil, nulla tamea scriptorls suctorilate odlata. Aliter Ilid. Recontiores priori etjmo adslipulantur. Strlcto eeniu. Si tabulain de naufragio atultai arripuerit. Plin- Sununs pars scuinss e labulis inauralis. Spoogiat aqua perfuse etpresizqus inter duas tabulas, Colum. Perforata tabula, qulbus ovilia coniternuntur. Latiore tenia de ill, qua allis maleriii cooslanu Plin.

Tabula asrea. Alia in Corp. Zat, 3, Dicitur desedill, quod tabulls conitat. Item de tabula lusoria, tcacchiere, qui et alreui dlcitur. Seneca Tranquill. Luiiste tu Canam ilia tabula putas? De nuee TJ. Per tabula clivum labl' Jubet alter et optat, Taogat at e mollis quamlibot ana tuam. Vidimui et quondam tabulse cer. Adda Martial. Item de plctara, quadra: in ta bulls enlm olio pingebant. Numquam ta vidlill tabulam plctam In pariete? Adde Ter. Epicuri iraaginem non modo In tabulls, sed elism In pocutlt et tn anallt habere.

Tabulat bene pictal co'lloeare in bono luroine. Quails Apellcit est color in tabulls. Tabulam coloribus urere. Quit fructus generis, tabula Jactare capacl Corvinam etc.? Zeuxls Agragantinls faCturae tabulam etc. Deplete In tabula slpariove imago re!. Deicrlbere tabulas mensurts ac lineis. Horbum in signie ao tabulli objiclat Verrl.

Inter, apud Bianehini Camer. Sed heui tu, manure de tabula: magister adest citius quam putaramua Erasmus refert ad Illud Plin. Dixit, omnia aibl cum PrOtogene paria esse aut illl mellora ; sed uno so prastare : nocere sape nimiam diligentlam. Bine tequitur, id esse dictum de modo, qui dlllgentta adbibendui eit. Sed Georges cum Fielorio puiat Id tumptum a discipulis pictorum, qui, magistro absenle, peniaillis aliquld in tabula pingunt, eoqua.

Alii vero aliter banc locutionem interpretanlar,velrespioieotes ad tabulam lusorlam, et deslttendum esse a ludo; vel ad litterariam, et cessandum a scribendo contra Casarem, ipso adventante. Sic Cie. Peloponncsi civitates omnes maritimas esse, 1 1oaarcbi tabulit credidl. Item de tabula votira. Sic Pert. Tabula Sextia et Faleria apud Cie. Scholiast, ad Cie. Maio ia Clati. Auct, T. Quod vero ad tabulam Valeriana perlinere vldeatur, loci- uomen tio -ferebatur, quemadmodum ad tabulam Sntiam, oiijus meminit pro Qulnctio: ila ct ad tabulam Valerian dlcebalur,-ubl Valerlui Maxiinut tabulam rerum ab ie in Gallia protpere gestaruin propoiuerat oitenlul Tulgo.

Hit tequentia aduotat cl. Maim: Gaudeant antiquarll Roman! Tabula Valeria quam Cicero nominal ellam. Oiacilio adminlstravit, Boma propoiita. Ei quo Plinii textu tltum etiam urbanum tabuls Valerias coi? Sed illud diligsnter animadvertendum eit, quod nlmlrum opud interpretem Vaticanum 'videtur esse scribsudum Siciiia pro Gallia. Jam vero tabulam quoque Seitiam non tam Sextii argentarii credere' Jam placet cum interpretum hodiernorum grege F. Ita cl. Furlanctltu in App. Sane vetercs ac recenllores plerlque interpretantur de mensa argentarii hoe nomine eppallitl; ad bai enim labulai aedebant tribuni plebls, ut viderent quid In contione ageretar, et prasto essent, ti quls Ipioram ausillo Indigeret: et etiam, ut apud Cic.

Item aeepe pro terjptara, quia in abulia ceratit scribebant, qua et tabetics dicuntur, tavolelta da scrivere, tcrittura, libro. Ne epiitola quidem olla ait lu adibus, nee eerata adeo tabula. Farro 3. Ornitbonii locus deformatut ad tabula? Iltteraria speciera cum capitulo. Ejus forma est quadrata et oblonga cum parvo capite perforato, ex quo suspendebatur. Lajvo suspensi loeulos tabulamque lacerlo. Adde Justin. Hinc de puero ralde studioso Petron. Quidquid iili vacat, caput de tabula non follit Of. Cic 7. Hinc tabulce, syngrapha, scripliira contraetuum, rationum aliarumque rorum, scridure, libri, regislri tic.

Juppiler bonos in ahis tabulis eucripioa habet.

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Tabula, ubi ara persenbuntur usuraria. Coofleere tabulas. Multuni dilTert, in arcane positum sit argentum, an in tabulis debeslur. Lillera liturstque omnes essitnulatB, cxprcs. Tabula; maxima. Culrvmento dolalc. Tunc ubiilM ac Papiam I'oppa. B, i,. Met p. Ibique adnot.

Adde Quintil. Tabula patranaiuj, de qua Scholiast, ad Juvenal. Aenea pagina, qua ante imaginem eorum stans omnes eorum gradus bonorum loscriptos continet, quam auos dicunt tabulam pairooatua. Item dicltur de lis, qua In auctioolbus propoaebantur. Horti praconl subjiciantur.

Id nisi fit, exeludemur: sin ad tabulam venimus, viocemus facultates Olhonis.

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Petti, cons. Antonium In pratura competltorem babulmua, amico Sabidio et Panthera, quod ad tabulam quos poneret, non habebat. Varro 3. Narrat, ad tabulam, quum diriberent, quemdam deprebensum tesserulas conjlclentem In locolum. Adde ibid. Item de legibus et edictis. Tolo Capitolio tabula Dgebantur. Sic I. Neque tabula uiiias drcreti Casaris aut beneficil figeretur. Tabula publlca Heracleenslum. Liv- Ut prima inter primos nomina sua velleot in tabulis publicis esse.

Tabula area, In quibus publica constitutiooes inciduntur. Bibliothecas omnium philosopborum unus mihi videtur duodeclm tabularum Hbellus et auctoritatis poodere et utilitatis ubertate superare. Mulli alieoo saculu petunt verba, XII tabulas loquuntur: Gracchus illis et Cratsui et Curio nimis culti et recentes sunt; ad Appium usquo et Coruncaoium redeunt. Quldam contra dum nihil nisi trilum et usitatum volunt, in sordes incidunt F. Quod rescripserunt in labulis areis. Memoria publica receosionis labulis publicis impress.

Ul omnia patrimonii, dignitatis, atatie, arlium officlorumque discrimioa in tabulas refcrrculur. Cora tabularum publicarum. Item de labella, qua in judiciis ferebalur senteutla et in comitiis suffragium. Quod si comitia placet in senatu habere, petamus, ambiaraus: tabula modo detur nobis, sicut populo data est. Ut discoloribus sigois Juralorum bominum senlenlia nolarentur.

Signa alii ceratas diverso colore tabulas: alii ab judicibus appositas labulis ceras diversi coloris ajunt. Adde man. Laudare per tabulas, scribere testjmoniales lilleras in iaudem alicujus, fare una testimonial, tin attettato di buoni costumi, lodare in iscritto. Uoruiu magna pars per labulas laudaverunt, quia aboraat. Tabula, de proscrlptione. Juvenal, i. In tabulam Sulla si dicant diseipuli ires. Antool, Phario nil objectare Photino, El levlus tabula, quam Cictrone, noeens. Omnibus hts loeruot grata vestigia cura: In tabulas multis hac via fecit iter. Plin, 2. Coegit mulierem aperire tabulas ac slbi tunicas, quas erat Induta, iegare.

Notum est, cur solo tabulas impleverit Hister Liberto. Tabulas mutare. Tabuta nova, novus rationum codex, veteri delete, ut as alien urn vetus debltoribus remittatur. Postquam ipsum Trebellium vidit sioe tabulis novis salrutn esse non posse. Tabula Cart. In re rustica tabula est modus et mensura agrorum incerta quantitatls, 'In quadrum eonformata, mitura, quanlita di campi. Tabulas pro doinini voluntato vel loci ratione faciemus, sive Integrum jugerura coutinentes seu medium etc.

Serainarium dicimus eque fossam tabulam pedum duorum semis aliltudino. Jugeralis tabula, ft.

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Jugeri quarta pars. Habet itaque tabula una quadralas perlicas septuagiola dues, et p. Bemanent perlica centum duodecim, qua faclunt tabulam uoam, semis el perticas quattuor. Apud Tcrlull.