Políticos e Religião em Domínio (Portuguese Edition)
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The majority of media policies and regulations, including in highly commercialized environments, agrees that concentrated ownership constricts the number and kind of speakers. Rather, it assumes the diversity of voices resulting from the existence of press freedom contributes to more informed judgments on public issues and therefore to a better political system. Media make sense of social events and are important framers of reality in a very complex process of social interactions. The digital paradigm increasingly improved the potential for dissent and plurality, as people are now more able to produce their own versions and comments in the same process of consuming and sharing information.
The prediction evolved in our immersive multiplatform contemporary media environment with unplanned effects, such as to insulate us in hermetically sealed political chambers. Sunstein claims the social media fragmentation fuels the spiral of silence dynamics and recent debates on electoral coverage and post-truth journalism seem to aggravate Negroponte initial reflection. Based on the importance the media have in terms of constructing the public perceptions of social events, there is special concern about preventing gross misrepresentations of people and their views.
Under this perspective, voicing the citizens becomes one of the media primary duties. But which citizens, based on what news values and at what risks, remains one of the most complicated theoretical, ethical and professional challenges to academics and journalists. The media diversity agenda: a historical background. Responsible media coverage is expected to foster inclusion and cultural dialogue and fight inequality, prejudice, and discrimination. The rational supporting this norm is the powerful influence of the media in social life and its ability to shape the collective experience of diversity.
The media potential to do good promote democracy equals its potential to do harm promote bias and hate.
Bombaim sob domínio português
Media regulations towards the fostering of diversity are informed by continuous public claims about the faults and sins of media organizations, namely concerning the historical under-representation of minorities in the newsrooms and in media content and the stereotyping of women and other less privileged groups. The basic questions underlying any diversity promotion policy are to achieve more accurate portrays of social groups, to reject prejudice and, moreover, to present fairly and proportionally the views and voices representative of the communities that would, otherwise, be barred from the media.
The business of news media production and distribution has changed dramatically, and so has the social and cultural environment in which news is originated and consumed.
A methodological approach: the MPM experience and data. This article relies on data and experience resulting from a recent assessment of the Portuguese public service media sector conducted by national experts under the Media Pluralism Monitor MPM project 1.
Our focus is to describe generically how Portuguese public service media perform in the social inclusiveness domain and identify potential risks. Recent developments in the understanding of how increasing job precariousness is eroding journalists autonomy and preventing them to act as reliable watchdogs of the political and economic powers justify a sceptical view about the sustainability of media diversity goals.
In Portugal, the most recent sociological inquiry 4 regarding labour relationships in journalism clearly links economic constrains, such as low income and weak social protection, to potential risks, such as a perceived vulnerability towards power abuses, a frail self-professional regulation and the degradation of ethical standards. To conclude, the protection of journalists as part of a media policy supporting a pluralistic public sphere needs to be considered in relation to overall socio-political goals.
Media diversity in Portugal: old problems and new challenges. Portugal is a small country homogeneous in cultural and linguistic terms. Non-Portuguese speakers originated in a more recent immigration, from the s, with Eastern Europe and China being the most representative countries. The absence of recent academic studies focused on diverse media content and articulated with questions of social and ethnic discrimination, vulnerable publics and economic exclusion, supports this view. Some dimensions of the media diversity agenda, such as media literacy policies, are particularly neglected in terms of national coordination.
The economic weakness of regional media indicates the need for a more supportive and proactive policy. Portuguese media legislation recognizes regional or local media as a specific category of media with special mission and obligations. Articles 7 and 9 of Radio Law Assembly of the Portuguese Republic, acknowledge the existence of radio programme services at local level and foresee the existence of local educational radio stations focused on persons attending higher education; the article 7 of Television and On-Demand Audiovisual Services Law Assembly of the Portuguese Republic, similarly defines the existence of international, national, regional or local television programmes depending on whether they are respectively aimed at other countries, national territory, metropolitan and municipal areas.
The radio sub-sector has several specific thresholds based on objective criteria Assembly of the Portuguese Republic, The Regional Press Portal constitutes another state measure that supports regional and local press, lodging these media, for free, in an online platform. The Regional Press Portal, launched in June , is framed under a broader legislation intended to promote and support readership 6 and aims promote the use of new technologies to spread news and informative content.
We underline that also in the Coordinating Commissions for Regional Development CCDR became to be the official body entitled by governmental attribution with the authority to execute measures regarding State incentives due to regional and local media 7. The CCDR additional competences include receiving, evaluating and approving applications and ensuring the supervision of respective compliance.
However, the extinction of GMCS in created some confusion among the stakeholders, namely in terms of information gathering and coordination. Moreover, in Europe, the attention paid to diversity and ethnic minority issues called for recognition of a specific branch of community media, which defined minority community media as often local initiatives with a strong participatory element, associated with a dissatisfaction with mainstream media Deuze, Contrary to European countries such as the United Kingdom or The Netherlands, community media are not defined as a separate category in Portugal and the format is not legally defined.
The article 58, on the right to work, entrusts the State with the responsibility to ensure that access to no post, work or professional category is ever prohibited or limited based on gender. According to the Portuguese judicial system, conflicts regarding gender discriminations are settled in common courts of law.
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In terms of regulation, gender equality is a sensitive topic, as it raises increasing awareness among stakeholders and disposes of several valuable monitoring instruments. Despite legal safeguards, gender equality is still a mission to accomplish in Portuguese society. The Global Gender Gap Report Word Economic Forum, shows that, regarding salary gender impairment, Portugal scores in the 97th position among the countries included in the study.
This is a strong indicator of how vital is to continue the effort to promote a gender agenda. The Portuguese legal framework concerning gender labour equality regulates all organizations, including media organizations. In order to promote a coherent link between the implementation of the V National Plan and media companies in Portugal, under the horizon of European strategy , the Commission for Labour and Employment Equality CITE 8 developed an initiative called Forum IGEN Companies for Gender Equality , a group of companies that voluntarily joins the forum in order to express its commitment to gender equality and share experiences and practices.
Globalização: antropologia e religião
The sustainability report of RTP, describes diverse supportive measures of gender equality. Two examples are the partnerships with UMAR, a women organization campaigning against sexual harassment, and with the European Council campaign against violence towards women. Despite the fact that the mission of gender equality can be found stated in several PSM strategic documents also following a growing gender concern in political national and European strategic guidelines , gender balance in the management body is still not a reality in Portuguese PSM, although the current management board was already nominated within a legal apparatus framework that strongly recommends a gender equality policy.
The gender gap in relation to leading positions applies to not only to PSM but also to Portuguese media organizations in general, which still are dominated by men, even though journalism is becoming an increasingly female profession Subtil, ; Miranda, The Opinion Council is a more extensive and advisory board composed of 30 members 21 men and 9 women. The whole human resources structure of RTP is not gendered balanced.
Gender imbalance is particularly strong at the management functions male and 58 female workers , the multimedia sector 24 male and 8 female workers and the specialists 70 male and 55 female. As for the newsroom, against the generic trend in Portugal, it is still dominated by men: journalists are men and are women.
As for the public news agency LUSA, the Administration Council has 5 members 3 are men and the president is a woman ; the Fiscal Council has 4 members 2 men and 2 women and the General Assembly Board includes 3 members 2 women and 1 man. The television activity - regardless of its public or commercial nature - follows the Television Law in the obligation to ensure pluralism and political, social and cultural diversity.
However, the public service media PSM is bound to more specific obligations. The Concession Contract for Public Service Television AAVV, includes a set of norms related to gender equality in what concerns broadcast content: for instance, excluding, inter alia, gender-based hatred; or ensuring that the information spaces contribute to the awareness of the public to gender equality issues.
Regarding the presence of women as protagonists in the news, data show there is gender inequality. The main area of origin of the female protagonists of the news is national politics the main theme of the news services of the night.
The news also highlights female protagonists of society, culture artists and other creators , internal affairs, economy, finance and business especially small and medium businesses and individual entrepreneurs , and health and social action. Plus, women are not only underrepresented but also portrayed with a stereotypical representation Gallego, Issues of gendered representation in media content have been well researched by feminist media scholars but new research is still necessary Lobo et al. A more clear assessment of PSM responsibilities and performance towards gender is also part of this broad knowledge deficit problem.
The Portuguese Constitutional Law guarantees access to airtime on PSM channels to different social and cultural groups. Portugal has no national minorities and is the only country in Europe whose frontiers as a state and as a nation have been coincident in the last years. This fact does not collide with the phenomenon of immigration, and the existence of one ethnic minority, the Roma community.
Portugal signed in and ratified in the Framework Convention for the Protection of National Minorities and has thus a legal obligation to promote the full equality of persons belonging to minorities. The commitment to promote cultural diversity and respond to the multilingual and multicultural contemporary reality of Portuguese society is expressed in several documents, including the annual report on the sustainability of PSM 12 but the analysis provided is scarce and lacks comprehensibility. The ERC annual regulation report refers to 3 programmes in RTP1 specifically aimed at promoting the cultural diversity of minority groups, in a total of 39 annual emissions and 36 hours of programming - which represents a very significant decrease in comparison to the year before 8 programmes, annual emissions, hours of programming.
However, this data does not discriminate among religious, cultural information and educational programmes. ERC methodology does not specifically categorize the presence of ethnic or other minorities in the news protagonists, the information sources or the themes presented.
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According to Isabel Ferin, a professor at University of Coimbra and senior researcher on minorities and media, interviewed by email on April 30 th , Roma people are the most discriminated and Roma women are at particular risk of marginalisation and exclusion. The Portugal Digital Agenda 14 puts great emphasis in the thematic of accessibility and digital inclusion, recommending that barrier-free access to audiovisual content should be envisaged as a fundamental human rights issue.
There are two main policy areas: To promote the availability of e-books adapted for people with special needs; and to define an accessibility policy for digital content and Portuguese digital platforms in several key-sectors, such as public and local administration, learning institutions, banking, services, shopping and the media. The obligation to take into account the special needs of people with disabilities is part of the license agreement and mandatory for the registration process.
Integrative public policies exist but are not consolidated. The current offer includes subtitling, audio description and signing. Video searching, double screen and vocalisation are available on the websites. PSM are forced to a minimum of hours of emissions adapted with subtitling, audio description and signing. The on-demand audiovisual services obligations remain to regulate in terms of minimal standards. The obligations inscribed in the plan differentiate between PSM and private media, imposing larger hours of programming both in entertainment and information available for people with disability to PSM.
ERC recognizes that more should be done, namely with a continuous effort to implement new technological facilities. But one can hardly impose media companies the sole fault for failing a more comprehensive accessibility policy. According to the Access Unit from FCT testing the electronic accessibility for citizens with special needs , in a study from concerning the accessibility of public and local administration websites, Portugal scores on the average among the 27 member states.
There is no consistent policy towards media literacy, rather it is fragmented and dispersed in the field, lacking national coordination. One example is the creation of the Portal for Media Literacy, in , 17 to aggregate reference documents and resources. It is not updated regularly and fails to provide a useful tool for educators, researchers and citizens. Another positive measure was the development of the National Plan for Cinema, to foster filmmaking and film criticism skills among students.
However, the number of schools involved is still very limited and most schools lack the resources to develop the proposed activities. There are also some activities promoted by the government in articulation with different stakeholders, like the Congress on Media Literacy and Citizenship and the initiative Seven Days with the Media. This document constitutes the main landmark to implement media literacy in schooling and can be used in various teaching levels. The Referential includes teaching recommendations and guidelines for the schools wishing to integrate media literacy into its educational projects and was designed to be a working tool for media educators.
But media literacy is not a formal topic included in schooling goals and curricula, excluding the curricular unit of Information and Communication Technologies, where topics concerning digital security and digital gaming are formally included. The remaining curricular areas may include dispersing approaches.
Conquista romana da Península Ibérica
In the realm of media diversity policies and social inclusiveness in Portugal, areas such as access to media for minorities and women, as well as media literacy policies, still require a considerable amount of work. Access to media for minorities is legally safeguarded and expressed in several documents, but more programming promoting cultural diversity is necessary. Additionally, we suggest a reinforcement of academic research focused on media and minorities, in order to create instruments to critically think about media representations of minority groups.
It is also crucial to pursuit the mission of gender equality in the media, where men still dominate leading positions in media organizations and in the news. Finally, since media literacy policies are fragmented in the field and we recommend a consistent national strategy that can take advantage of the already existent critical thinking, namely building a stronger focus on cognitively demanding literacy instruction in school curricula. AAVV AdC Assembly of the Portuguese Republic Author s : Machado, Carly. This perspective is based on the idea that the media landscape is crucial to the discussion of political, social and religious issues today in the state of Rio.
Through an analysis of the pacification program promoted by the public safety state policy, this article discusses the process of production and maintenance of an effective moral project of redemption conducted by the government of the state of Rio de Janeiro, in order to associate the political "liberation" of some territories from the domain of crime, with a Christian religious liberation from sin, evil and the enemy. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use.
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