The Sacrifices of One Woman
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She begs for, and is granted, "two months to roam the hills and weep with my friends", after which "he [Jephthah] did to her as he had vowed. According to Roman and Greek sources, Phoenicians and Carthaginians sacrificed infants to their gods. The bones of numerous infants have been found in Carthaginian archaeological sites in modern times but the subject of child sacrifice is controversial. Plutarch c. Livy and Polybius do not. The Bible asserts that children were sacrificed at a place called the tophet "roasting place" to the god Moloch.
According to Diodorus Siculus' Bibliotheca historica , "There was in their city a bronze image of Cronus extending its hands, palms up and sloping toward the ground, so that each of the children when placed thereon rolled down and fell into a sort of gaping pit filled with fire.
The Top 5 Sacrifices Women Make For Their Career
Plutarch, however claims that the children were already dead at the time, having been killed by their parents, whose consent—as well as that of the children—was required; Tertullian explains the acquiescence of the children as a product of their youthful trustfulness. The accuracy of such stories is disputed by some modern historians and archaeologists. There is archaeological evidence of human sacrifice in Neolithic to Eneolithic Europe. References to human sacrifice can be found in Greek historical accounts as well as mythology. The human sacrifice in mythology, the deus ex machina salvation in some versions of Iphigeneia who was about to be sacrificed by her father Agamemnon and her replacement with a deer by the goddess Artemis , may be a vestigial memory of the abandonment and discrediting of the practice of human sacrifice among the Greeks in favour of animal sacrifice.
In ancient Rome, human sacrifice was infrequent but documented. Roman authors often contrast their own behavior with that of people who would commit the heinous act of human sacrifice. These authors make it clear that such practices were from a much more uncivilized time in the past, far removed.
Don’t forget the sacrifices made by women on the home front
Dionysius of Halicarnassus  says that the ritual of the Argei , in which straw figures were tossed into the Tiber river , may have been a substitute for an original offering of elderly men. Cicero claims that puppets thrown from the Pons Suplicius by the Vestal Virgins in a processional ceremony were substitutes for the past sacrifice of old men.
When the Romans conquered the Celts in Gaul, they tortured the people by cutting off their hands and feet and leaving them to die. The Romans justified their actions by also accusing the Celts of practicing human sacrifice. According to Pliny the Elder , human sacrifice was banned by law during the consulship of Publius Licinius Crassus and Gnaeus Cornelius Lentulus in 97 BCE, although by this time it was so rare that the decree was largely symbolic.
Such practices included burying unchaste Vestal Virgins alive and drowning hermaphroditic children. These were seen as reactions to extraordinary circumstances as opposed to being part of Roman tradition. Vestal Virgins who were accused of being unchaste were put to death, and a special chamber was built to bury them alive. This aim was to please the gods and restore balance to Rome. However, the burial of unchaste Vestal Virgins was also practiced in times of peace. Their chasteness was thought to be a safeguard of the city, and even in punishment the state of their bodies was preserved in order to maintain the peace.
Captured enemy leaders were only occasionally executed at the conclusion of a Roman triumph , and the Romans themselves did not consider these deaths a sacrificial offering. Political rumors sometimes centered around sacrifice and in doing so, aimed to liken individuals to barbarians and show that the individual had become uncivilized. Human sacrifice also became a marker and defining characteristic of magic and bad religion.
According to Roman sources, Celtic Druids engaged extensively in human sacrifice. Victims meant for Esus were hanged , Tollund Man being an example, those meant for Taranis immolated and those for Teutates drowned. Some, like the Lindow Man , may have gone to their deaths willingly. Ritualised decapitation was a major religious and cultural practice which has found copious support in the archaeological record, including the numerous skulls discovered in Londinium 's River Walbrook and the 12 headless corpses at the French late Iron Age sanctuary of Gournay-sur-Aronde.
Evidence of Germanic practices of human sacrifice predating the Viking Age depend on archaeology and on a few scattered accounts in Greco-Roman ethnography. For example, Tacitus reports Germanic human sacrifice to what he interprets as Mercury , and to Isis specifically among the Suebians.
Jordanes reports how the Goths sacrificed prisoners of war to Mars , suspending the severed arms of the victims from the branches of trees. By the 10th century, Germanic paganism had become restricted to Scandinavia. One account by Ahmad ibn Fadlan as part of his account of an embassy to the Volga Bulgars in claims that Norse warriors were sometimes buried with enslaved women with the belief that these women would become their wives in Valhalla.
In his description of the funeral of a Scandinavian chieftain , a slave volunteers to die with a Norseman. This practice is evidenced archaeologically, with many male warrior burials such as the ship burial at Balladoole on the Isle of Man, or that at Oseberg in Norway  also containing female remains with signs of trauma.
Adam von Bremen recorded human sacrifices to Odin in 11th-century Sweden, at the Temple at Uppsala , a tradition which is confirmed by Gesta Danorum and the Norse sagas. According to the Ynglinga saga , king Domalde was sacrificed there in the hope of bringing greater future harvests and the total domination of all future wars. The same saga also relates that Domalde's descendant king Aun sacrificed nine of his own sons to Odin in exchange for longer life, until the Swedes stopped him from sacrificing his last son, Egil.
Heidrek in the Hervarar saga agrees to the sacrifice of his son in exchange for the command over a fourth of the men of Reidgotaland. With these, he seizes the entire kingdom and prevents the sacrifice of his son, dedicating those fallen in his rebellion to Odin instead. In the 10th century, Persian explorer Ahmad ibn Rustah described funerary rites for the Rus' Scandinavian Norsemen traders in northeastern Europe including the sacrifice of a young female slave.
According to the 12th-century Russian Primary Chronicle , prisoners of war were sacrificed to the supreme Slavic deity Perun. Sacrifices to pagan gods, along with paganism itself, were banned after the Baptism of Rus' by Prince Vladimir I in the s. Archeological findings indicate that the practice may have been widespread, at least among slaves, judging from mass graves containing the cremated fragments of a number of different people.
The ancient Chinese are known to have made drowned sacrifices of men and women to the river god Hebo. This was especially prevalent during the Shang and Zhou Dynasties. During the Warring States period, Ximen Bao of Wei outlawed human sacrificial practices to the river god. The stated purpose was to provide companionship for the dead in the afterlife.
In earlier times, the victims were either killed or buried alive, while later they were usually forced to commit suicide. Funeral human sacrifice was widely practiced in the ancient Chinese state of Qin. The fourteenth ruler Duke Mu had people buried with him in BCE, including three senior government officials. More than coffins containing the remains of victims were found in the tomb. Modern historian Ma Feibai considers the significance of Duke Xian's abolition of human sacrifice in Chinese history comparable to that of Abraham Lincoln 's abolition of slavery in American history.
After the abolition by Duke Xian, funeral human sacrifice became relatively rare throughout the central parts of China. However, the Hongwu Emperor of the Ming Dynasty revived it in , following the Mongolian Yuan precedent, when his second son died and two of the prince's concubines were sacrificed. In , the Tianshun Emperor in his will forbade the practice for Ming emperors and princes. Human sacrifice was also practised by the Manchus. Following Nurhaci 's death, his wife, Lady Abahai , and his two lesser consorts committed suicide.
During the Qing Dynasty , sacrifice of slaves was banned by the Kangxi Emperor in Human sacrifice, including cannibalism , was practiced in Tibet prior to the arrival of Buddhism in the 7th century. The prevalence of human sacrifice in medieval Buddhist Tibet is less clear. The Lamas , as professing Buddhists, could not condone blood sacrifices, and they replaced the human victims with effigies made from dough.
This replacement of human victims with effigies is attributed to Padmasambhava , a Tibetan saint of the mid-8th century, in Tibetan tradition. Nevertheless, there is some evidence that outside of lamaism, there were practices of tantric human sacrifice which survived throughout the medieval period, and possibly into modern times. The 15th-century Blue Annals , a document of Tibetan Buddhism , reports upon how in 13th-century Tibet the so-called "18 robber-monks" slaughtered men and women in their ceremonies.
Based on this evidence, Grunfeld concludes that it cannot be ruled out that isolated instances of human sacrifice did survive in remote areas of Tibet until the midth century, but they must have been rare enough to have left no more traces than the evidence cited above. In India, human sacrifice is mainly known as "Narabali". Here "nara" means man and "bali" means sacrifice. It takes place in some parts of India mostly to find lost treasure.
Currently human sacrifice is very rare in modern India. However, there have been at least three cases through — where men have been murdered in the name of human sacrifice implying the practice may still be ongoing in greater numbers in the unpoliced slums. The earliest evidence for human sacrifice in the Indian subcontinent dates back to the Bronze Age Indus Valley Civilization. An Indus seal from Harappa depicts the upside-down nude female figure with legs outspread and a plant issuing from her womb. The reverse side of the seal depicts a man holding a sickle and a woman seated on the ground in a posture of prayer.
Many scholars interpret this scene as a human sacrifice in honor of the Mother-Goddess, although many historians doubt it. Regarding possible Vedic mention of human sacrifice, the prevailing 19th-century view, associated above all with Henry Colebrooke , was that human sacrifice did not actually take place. Those verses which referred to purushamedha were meant to be read symbolically,  or as a "priestly fantasy". However, Rajendralal Mitra published a defence of the thesis that human sacrifice, as had been practised in Bengal , was a continuation of traditions dating back to Vedic periods.
Human and animal sacrifice became less common during the post-Vedic period, as ahimsa non-violence became part of mainstream religious thought. The Chandogya Upanishad 3. It was agreed even by Colebrooke, however, that by the Puranic period—at least at the time of the writing of the Kalika-Purana , human sacrifice was accepted. The Kalika Purana was composed in Northeast India in the 11th century.
The text states that blood sacrifice is only permitted when the country is in danger and war is expected. According to the text, the performer of a sacrifice will obtain victory over his enemies. In the 7th century, Banabhatta , in a description of the dedication of a temple of Chandika , describes a series of human sacrifices; similarly, in the 9th century, Haribhadra describes the sacrifices to Chandika in Odisha.
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Human sacrifice is reputed to have been performed on the altars of the Hatimura Temple , a Shakti Great Goddess temple located at Silghat , in the Nagaon district of Assam. It used to be an important center of Shaktism in ancient Assam. Its presiding goddess is Durga in her aspect of Mahisamardini , slayer of the demon Mahisasura.
It was also performed in the Tamresari Temple which was located in Sadiya under the Chutia kings. Human sacrifices were carried out in connection with the worship of Shakti until approximately the early modern period, and in Bengal perhaps as late as the early 19th century. The Khonds , an aboriginal tribe of India, inhabiting the tributary states of Odisha and Andhra Pradesh , became notorious, on the British occupation of their district about , from the prevalence and cruelty of the human sacrifices they practised.
In Ancient Hawaii , a luakini temple, or luakini heiau , was a Native Hawaiian sacred place where human and animal blood sacrifices were offered. Kauwa , the outcast or slave class, were often used as human sacrifices at the luakini heiau. They are believed to have been war captives , or the descendants of war captives.
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They were not the only sacrifices; law-breakers of all castes or defeated political opponents were also acceptable as victims. According to an account, in Tonga , a child was strangled to assist the recovery of a sick relation. The people of Fiji practised widow -strangling. When Fijians adopted Christianity, widow-strangling was abandoned. Some of the most famous forms of ancient human sacrifice were performed by various Pre-Columbian civilizations in the Americas  that included the sacrifice of prisoners as well as voluntary sacrifice.
Friar Marcos de Niza , writing of the Chichimecas , said that from time to time "they of this valley cast lots whose luck honour it shall be to be sacrificed, and they make him great cheer, on whom the lot falls, and with great joy they crown him with flowers upon a bed prepared in the said ditch all full of flowers and sweet herbs, on which they lay him along, and lay great store of dry wood on both sides of him, and set it on fire on either part, and so he dies" and "that the victim took great pleasure" in being sacrificed.
The Mixtec players of the Mesoamerican ballgame were sacrificed when the game was used to resolve a dispute between cities.
The rulers would play a game instead of going to battle. The losing ruler would be sacrificed. The ruler "Eight Deer", who was considered a great ball player and who won several cities this way, was eventually sacrificed, because he attempted to go beyond lineage-governing practices, and to try to create an empire. The Maya held the belief that cenotes or limestone sinkholes were portals to the underworld and sacrificed human beings and tossed them down the cenote to please the water god Chaac.
Only in the Post-Classic era did this practice become as frequent as in central Mexico. The Aztecs were particularly noted for practicing human sacrifice on a large scale; an offering to Huitzilopochtli would be made to restore the blood he lost, as the sun was engaged in a daily battle. Human sacrifices would prevent the end of the world that could happen on each cycle of 52 years. In the re-consecration of the Great Pyramid of Tenochtitlan some estimate that 80, prisoners were sacrificed   though numbers are difficult to quantify as all obtainable Aztec texts were destroyed by Christian missionaries during the period — According to Ross Hassig , author of Aztec Warfare , "between 10, and 80, people" were sacrificed in the ceremony.
The old reports of numbers sacrificed for special feasts have been described as "unbelievably high" by some authors  and that on cautious reckoning, based on reliable evidence, the numbers could not have exceeded at most several hundred per year in Tenochtitlan. Michael Harner, in his article The Enigma of Aztec Sacrifice , estimates the number of persons sacrificed in central Mexico in the 15th century as high as , per year. Other scholars believe that, since the Aztecs always tried to intimidate their enemies, it is far more likely that they inflated the official number as a propaganda tool.
The peoples of the Southeastern United States known as the Mississippian culture to CE have been suggested to have practiced human sacrifice, because some artifacts have been interpreted as depicting such acts. Louis, Missouri , was found to have numerous pits filled with mass burials thought to have been retainer sacrifices. One of several similar pit burials had the remains of 53 young women who had been strangled and neatly arranged in two layers. Another pit held 39 men, women and children who showed signs of dying a violent death before being unceremoniously dumped into the pit. Several bodies showed signs of not having been fully dead when buried and of having tried to claw their way to the surface.
On top of these people another group had been neatly arranged on litters made of cedar poles and cane matting. Another group of four individuals found in the mound were interred on a low platform, with their arms interlocked. They had had their heads and hands removed. The most spectacular burial at the mound is the " Birdman burial ". This was the burial of a tall man in his 40s, now thought to have been an important early Cahokian ruler. He was buried on an elevated platform covered by a bed of more than 20, marine-shell disc beads arranged in the shape of a falcon ,  with the bird's head appearing beneath and beside the man's head, and its wings and tail beneath his arms and legs.
Below the birdman was another man, buried facing downward. Surrounding the birdman were several other retainers and groups of elaborate grave goods. A ritual sacrifice of retainers and commoners upon the death of an elite personage is also attested in the historical record among the last remaining fully Mississippian culture, the Natchez.
Upon the death of " Tattooed Serpent " in , the war chief and younger brother of the "Great Sun" or Chief of the Natchez; two of his wives, one of his sisters nicknamed La Glorieuse by the French , his first warrior, his doctor, his head servant and the servant's wife, his nurse, and a craftsman of war clubs all chose to die and be interred with him, as well as several old women and an infant who was strangled by his parents.
Tattooed Serpent was then buried in a trench inside the temple floor and the retainers were buried in other locations atop the mound surrounding the temple. After a few months time the bodies were dis-interred and their defleshed bones were stored as bundle burials in the temple.
The Pawnee practiced an annual Morning Star Ceremony , which included the sacrifice of a young girl. Though the ritual continued, the sacrifice was discontinued in the 19th century. The torture of war captives by the tribes of the Eastern Woodlands cultural region also seems to have had sacrificial motivations. See Captives in American Indian Wars. The Incas practiced human sacrifice, especially at great festivals or royal funerals where retainers died to accompany the dead into the next life. Well, the ultimate sacrifice is his life. He would die for me and for our daughter without hesitation.
I know this. He does so much more, but that right there —laying down his life —nothing compares to that. Michelle Johnson is the founder of Alabaster Woman Ministries, an online international women's ministry. She is a wife, mother, writer, speaker, teacher. Through her daily blog, online radio show, and video Bible studies, Dr. Michelle encourages women and married couples to make God the center of their lives.
Good work as always Dr. Then taking the time to articulate that you notice and appreciate those things. Thank you so much for your insight into the things that are really important in keeping a mirrage solid, by applying Christlike principals. Sacrafice is the ultimate expression of love, as it was with Christ for us. If just a few of the principals you mentioned are able to be practiced in any marriage, it would definately become stronger.
Keep the wisdom comming, and Bless you for sharing it. When my husband and i get into an argument he says he has sacrificed everything for me and I have done nothing. So i am at a loss because he seems to equate sacrifice as a material thing and on that front i can only buy the groceries and host family and friends on occasion.
A husband who is willing to lay down is life is great but how often will he get the chance to do that? Sacrifices must be made daily and in OTHER ways big and small to show you love and care for a person. If my husband did not sacrifice for me on the regular then how would I know that he would be willing to give up his life for me and our family?
A more balanced article would show how both a husband and wife sacrifice for each other. All of the things listed here should be things a wife AND her husband should sacrifice. On Sunday, the New York Times published a front-page piece about the rise in women bankers with stay-at-home husbands.
The figures themselves were striking. Since , the number of mothers working in finance with stay-at-home husbands has risen nearly tenfold. These women are a small percentage of female bankers overall, but the magnitude of the rise is still important. If our goals are 1 to see more women leading companies, banks, universities, and other major institutions, not to mention countries, and 2 to ensure those women can have families if they want to, we need to admit 3 men are part of how they will do this.
This is a newer idea than you might think. Any woman journalist who had to take maternity leave or depart the office at six p. I was working in a newsroom at the time, with one young child and another on the way, and what I remember from the ensuing firestorm is how little talk there was that fathers might, you know, help.