Lynx en danger ! (Premiers Romans) (French Edition)
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In the event of a true decline of the seal population due to factors other than hunting, the current level of the legal quota may be inappropriate and create unfavourable pressure on the species. Planned oil and gas pipeline to China : IUCN welcomed the commitment from the State Party to require that the EIA prepared by the pipeline contractor should effectively address the protection of the integrity of the site. However, IUCN believed that this issue requires careful attention in the event that important gas reservoirs are found in the Selenga Delta and in the event that the State Party decides to exploit such reservoirs.
Forest Cutting : The State Party report noted that: wood-logging volumes in the catchment area of Lake Baikal are much lower that they were in the 80's; no clear-cutting operations are taking place in the coastal water-protection zone of Lake Baikal in the Irkutsk Region and the Republic of Buryatia; and all timber is logged under improved environmental felling operations. This issue remains unclear. Situation in Pribaikalsky National Park : IUCN welcomed the information provided by the State Party on the increasing level of protection of this national park that has resulted in a decreasing number of violations related to illegal fishing and hunting.
IUCN noted that the conservation and development issues at Lake Baikal are complex and that the positive efforts of the State Party in dealing with these issues are to be commended. IUCN restated that inscription on the List of World Heritage in Danger would be a positive measure to attract international support to enhance the capacity of the State Party to deal with the complex issues related to the conservation of this site.
IUCN also reiterated the need to consider the five points proposed to the 25th session of the World Heritage Committee for assessing future progress towards the conservation of this site. The Bureau furthermore requested the State Party to provide the following: Precise time-schedules for implementation of the first stage of the BPPM Programme in the next years; Concerning the Baikal Law: a map of the zones, indicating clear and logical borders; For the Baikal Commission: documentation detailing the establishment of the co-ordination body, including means of establishment, mandate, composition, date of commencement of duties, competence; Concerning the Baikal Seals: information on the training of legal hunters and establishment of a sound monitoring regime; and Finally for the Gas Exploration in the Selenga Delta, clear statement of intentions if and when gas is found through "scientific research".
However, such activity is being held in check in the protected natural areas included in the World Heritage site due to the operation of special services protecting and controlling the use of water resources, as well as certain environmental protection measures and education. Furthermore, IUCN noted reports of a lack of managerial and staffing levels and capacity in the protected areas, and expressed concern that this affects the ability to control poaching. IUCN acknowledged that hunting is allowed in Bystrinsky Nature Park under National Park regulations, but noted the critical need to develop systems to manage and monitor hunting to avoid reductions in the population of game species.
There is also concern that current staffing levels inhibit the Park management from effectively monitoring hunting. IUCN welcomed the information that the project for the improvement of the Esso-Palana road is to be the subject of a State EIA, however concerns remain on the secondary impacts that this road may have, through the opening up of opportunities for increased poaching and hunting.
With respect to the construction of the gas pipeline and geothermal power plant, though both outside the site, it is not clear how far from the boundaries both developments lie. Further details should be requested from the State Party on the construction of the pipeline and geothermal power plant and their Environmental Impact Statements. The Bureau requested that the State Party report on any future proposed mining adjacent to the site and the environmental impact assessment process and environmental management measures associated with any such activity.
The Bureau noted that there remain some conflicting reports and concerns with the conservation of this site. The Bureau decided that a mission to the site, as recommended by the World Heritage Committee at its 25th session, be deferred until information on the above aspects is received. The full report provided by the State Party noted that the project for the proposed expansion of the Port of Seville had not been approved and that it is subject to expert review by stakeholders.
Furthermore, progress in the consultation process and institutional arrangements for finalising the new Management Plan and the execution of special plans for the protection of the Iberian lynx and the Imperial Eagle decline of populations due to combination of problems were noted and that a regional approach is needed. Concerning the illegal water extraction it was stated that actions are taken with the Hydrographical Confederation of Guadalquivir to address this problem. However the Restoration Plan for the Aznalcollar Mine is still to be addressed, as the mine site is releasing a small amount of acid water.
Concerning the monitoring of water quality it is noted that water entering the National Park shows minimum levels of pollution. The Restoration Plan requires implementation over a number of years. IUCN noted that the situation of the Iberian Lynx has been aggravated, there is a lack of road speed limits and wildlife fatality mitigation infrastructure, and that the pilgrimage is not a single event but a combination of different pilgrimages throughout the year involving 3 - 5, people and hundreds of vehicles crossing the site.
IUCN considered that these pilgrimages could not be considered "traditional" in the way they are occurring. However, the State Party is making concerted efforts and investing substantial funds to address the range of issues affecting the site. The Bureau noted with concern a number of issues to be addressed including the Iberian Lynx population and the series of pilgrimages through the Park. The Bureau urged the State Party to give priority to promoting integrated regional land-use planning in order to minimise impacts related to irrigation and road design, construction and management around the site.
An issue paper was prepared for public consultation by March , which will be followed by a draft plan in June The State Party report noted that a number of planning applications had recently been lodged relating to the area immediately adjacent to the World Heritage site. These applications will be determined under the Northern Ireland planning process. The Bureau noted that the State Party letter of 11 February stated that the decision to sell the land was again reversed by the Moyle District Council on 6 February , and that the Council intended to take the lead in redeveloping the visitor facilities.
There is potential for cumulative impacts which could cause irreversible damage to the setting and environmental context of the site. The Bureau noted that the State Party report in December mentioned that the DOENI "has commenced preparation of the Northern Area Plan which will provide the statutory planning framework for development in the area up to The plan will formulate local planning policies accordingly. As an interim measure, and in advance of the planned adoption of this plan in , the current policy provides for a 4-km radius around the World Heritage site within which all development proposals will be subject to particular scrutiny.
Finally, the Bureau urged the State Party to implement the 4-km special zone during the drafting period of the Northern Area Plan, and to consider a moratorium on commercial development until such time as both the AONB management plan and the Northern Area Plan are further advanced". IUCN noted that the report stated that the results from the seabed survey are being analysed and a report will be produced as soon as possible. These results will inform the development of the proposal for an extension to the St Kilda World Heritage site as well as providing information for the site to be designated, and therefore protected under European legislation, as a Special Area of Conservation.
The maritime aspects of the plan will reflect the obligations of the Natural sites that will be able to call on the full backing of legislation to enable enforcement. If the new boundaries extend beyond the six-mile territorial limit this will raise issues relating to the Law of the Sea administered by the International Maritime Organisation.
The Bureau noted that no substantial new information is forthcoming, that the process of producing the management plan is ongoing, and looked forward to the proposals being provided by the State Party. These actions include establishing co-operation with the National Coast Guard Service NCGS and the Sea Shepherd Conservation Society for patrolling the marine area, extension of the marine limits up to 12 nautical miles and prosecution of illegal fishing boat owners.
The aim of the proposal is to improve the protection of existing protected areas within the Corridor, including two World Heritage sites, namely Cocos Island and Galapagos Marine Reserve, as well as to help prevent marine transportation related accidents and illegal fishing within the region. It noted that the recent prosecution of the Ecuadorian vessel underlined the commitment of the State Party and sets a precedent for further prosecutions.
The Bureau recognised the continuing financial constraints preventing the full enforcement of the present laws and regulations and the courage and dedication of those rangers who have been tackling the poaching threat for years. The Bureau congratulated the State Party on the extension of the Marine Park boundaries to 12 nautical miles, and, in light of the desire of the State Party to extend the boundaries of the World Heritage site to be commensurate with these new boundaries, requested that a proposal be submitted in due course, including a map of the extension.
The Bureau fully supported the efforts by The Sea Shepherd Conservation Society, particularly in seeking donations of fast boats, a radar system and other equipment to give to the Cocos Island National Park Ranger Station. If necessary, the State Party may wish to consider requesting additional assistance from the World Heritage Fund.
The Minister of Conservation announced that the installation of a state-of-the-art alarm and warning system, and the construction of a bank alongside the Whangaehu River are sufficient to address risks to public safety from an expected lahar.
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Furthermore, the Ministry is helping organisations with assets in the predicted lahar path to review their individual civil defense response plans. The decision was based on the assessment of potential risks to staff working on the engineering works versus the risk to the public and infrastructure without engineering, and the public concerns about the impact on National Park values that would occur by bulldozing into the summit of the mountain.
Given the high natural values of the Crater and the intense interest in the area," she said, "intervention would have been highly controversial and there would have been considerable uncertainty as to whether the required consents could have been obtained. The Bureau expressed its hope that all parties will accept the decision. The Bureau also noted that since when the Pamukkale Development Plan was issued, a number of positive developments had occurred: Construction of transportation to the site: the road linking Pamukkale town and the plateau, which climbed through the travertine terraces, has been closed and alternative options are being considered.
New access to the terraces is related to the alternative transportation options, which has yet to be resolved. Tourism establishments have been removed from the site and the last two hotels were demolished in This is considered one of the major successes of management of the site. Construction of a thermal water distribution network: the development of a thermal water distribution network is almost complete.
However the new water distribution channels are visually intrusive and options to address this problem are being considered, including changing the position and level of some channels, or camouflaging the channels with vegetation. Forming new travertine terraces: it is recognized that the major attraction of Pamukkale for tourists is bathing in the terraces. Hence plans are being developed to form new travertine areas to cater to this demand. The first activity under this project was an assessment of the Master Plan.
The assessment concluded that there was an urgent need for the establishment of a proper site management system, together with site interpretation and presentation plan. Problems relating to the state of conservation of the pools and visitor management have been successfully resolved. It requested that a report on the progress of the World Bank-financed project be made available and acknowledged the attempts to protect the site from tourist damage through the creation of alternative terraces for bathing.
It suggested that the State Party seek international technical, scientific and other support to improve the state of conservation of the travertine terraces. The management arrangements and planning mechanisms for the preservation of the Sanctuary, a proposed cable car from Aguas Calientes to the Ciudadela and a hotel extension, as well as damage to the Intihuantana sundial have been the main motives for this concern. The most recent mission was to assess the implementation of the recommendations of the mission and, in response to damage caused to the Intihuatana sundial, to look into the policy for the commercial use of the site.
The mission was undertaken from 25 February to 1 March and found that only a few of the recommendations of the mission had been fully implemented: Planning and management arrangements for the Sanctuary have improved only marginally and remain inadequate as many stakeholders continue to act in their own self-interest.
The strategies of the Master Plan have not been translated into clear planning and action, although an improvement is to be noted in the Operational Plan for the year The Machu Picchu Programme, funded under a debt-swap arrangement with Finland, has provided sound information on, and analysis of, many of the critical problems confronting the Sanctuary. However, this information has been used only rarely as the basis for concrete decisions and action. Access to the Sanctuary and to the Ciudadela remains as it has been for many years and the contract for the study and eventual construction of the proposed cable car has been cancelled.
A study on carrying capacity of the Camino Inca has been completed and a regulation for the use of the Inca Trail has been introduced, which is probably the most important progress that has been made in the Sanctuary. Terms of reference for development of a Public Use Plan for the Sanctuary are currently being developed in preparation for out-sourcing of this critical work. The Public Use Plan will be pivotal in terms of determining carrying capacities, alternatives for access, and the safety of Aguas Calientes for visitor use. These are critical factors that should be used as the basis for planning visitor services and facilities.
While urban development and natural disaster mitigation plans have been developed for the village of Aguas Calientes, they have not been implemented nor have their recommendations been followed. Scientific and financial support for management of the Sanctuary remains a critical issue for which the Machu Picchu Programme has provided interim solutions, but the Programme will terminate this year. Urgent consideration should be given to the establishment of a permanent, independent, and international institution to provide scientific support to the management of the Sanctuary.
There is also a need to immediately establish, as indicated in the Master Plan, a Trust Fund for Machu Picchu, to facilitate the collection, transparent management, and distribution of revenues in accordance with the priorities and strategies outlined in the Master Plan. The damage caused to the Intihuantana sundial during filming of a beer commercial has demonstrated that current regulation of commercial use of the site is inadequate.
Efforts are underway to augment both regulation and supervision of such activities in the future. Studies have been undertaken that indicate restoration of the damage to be feasible, but little can be done until the legal and administrative processes against the party causing the damage have been resolved. In the meantime, it would be useful to establish a technical commission to study the reports, and make a firm recommendation regarding the restoration. While recognising that progress has been made in certain aspects, particularly the management of the Camino Inca, it expressed its very serious concern about the continued inadequacy of the management and planning arrangements for the Sanctuary.
The Bureau requested the Chairperson of the World Heritage Committee to write a letter to the highest level competent authorities to invite the Peruvian Government to address these issues as a matter of urgency. A preliminary draft report on this Study was presented in November to the Bank during its pre-appraisal mission, in the presence of a WHC staff member, and discussed later with an ICOMOS expert in the framework of a reactive monitoring mission to the site. The ICOMOS expert examined as well several other proposed developments at the site, and assessed its general state of conservation.
The main problems concern exposed and very fragile structures at risk of collapse, unprotected excavations, and the lifted or in situ mosaics, which are being deteriorated by the combined effect of weathering, neglect and cement. The ICOMOS report stressed the urgent need for retaining walls to prevent erosion, the refilling of most open excavations, the conservation and protection of mosaics, and their proper presentation in an exhibition area to be identified. The relationship with the archaeological site was not taken into account, and an archaeological study was not commissioned by the Bank, contrary to what was done for Tyre and Baalbek.
The Bureau noted, however, that copies of the final studies had so far not been provided to the World Heritage Centre, which therefore could not examine the proposals in detail, but that from discussions with the Consultant, the project did not seem based on a detailed analysis of the ancient topography of the site, including the present-day archaeological area, and appeared conceived on a questionable concept of tourism development. Among these were, for example, the installation of a wooden deck on the coast around the archaeological area with extensions onto the sea; the covering of the pebbly beach below the site with sand and the construction of "adequate services and facilities for a tourist beach"; the re-design of the public square in front of the entrance to the excavations including a new fountain with no relations to the underlying archaeological remains; the construction of a new restaurant and elevated promenade on top of the present souk; the conversion of the Municipality and Old Seray, two of the most significant buildings of the Old City and in direct contact with the archaeological area, into a "Relais et Chateau" type of hotel; the execution of a passerelle around the entire medieval walled enclosure; etc.
These interventions, which would relieve the old city from excessive traffic and restore the original access to Byblos, were highly recommended by the ICOMOS expert. However, the ICOMOS Mission learnt of plans to further develop them for tourism purposes, and strongly warned against this idea, lest the encroachment of modern constructions should impact even more on the site and its buffer zone, which remains to be properly defined. As already pointed out by the participants in the two seminars organized by the Centre, and confirmed by the ICOMOS expert, this extension would have a major negative impact on the old harbour without providing a guarantee against the strong winter currents.
The Secretariat then informed the Bureau of a letter, received on 4 April from the Director-General of the Lebanese Antiquities Department, suggesting an alternative solution to the proposed extension of the jetty, consisting of a breakwater to be executed under the sea, some m from the old port. ICOMOS strongly recommends that, instead of engaging in these new projects, a detailed survey of the underwater areas around the site and within the harbour be completed as a matter of urgency.
Recognizing this problem at the national level, the World Bank decided to include an Institutional Assessment of the DGA as a precondition for the negotiation of its Project with the Lebanese Government. The WHC, which strongly supports this initiative, was involved in the preparation of the Terms of Reference for this Assessment and in the selection of the experts. He also informed the delegates of the intention of the Antiquities Department to request technical assistance from the Centre to assess the feasibility and possible impact of the above-mentioned breakwater.
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The Committee, however, expresses concern with regard to some of the proposed interventions, which would be incompatible with the respect for the outstanding universal values of the site. The Committee, furthermore, invites the State Party to ensure that adequate resources, possibly within this Project, be made available to support the necessary conservation and presentation works within the archaeological area, and especially the strengthening of the capacity and number of the local DGA staff.
Finally, the Committee encourages the Lebanese authorities to develop a comprehensive Urban Conservation Plan, including provisions for the areas adjacent to the archaeological site, the medieval enclosure, the areas of archaeological potential on the two sides of the Decumanus Maximus, and the zones to the North and South of Byblos, to protect the site and its buffer zones from further encroachments. The property consists of two parts: the Mausoleum mound and, 1. The Bureau was informed that measures are being taken to expand the boundaries of the property. The Bureau was also assured that intrusive buildings and stands located within the protected core and buffer zones of the site would be relocated.
The Observer of China expressed her Government's appreciation to the World Heritage Centre for its support in mobilizing international co-operation and expertise to complement the national and local efforts in safeguarding this important World Heritage property. In particular, the Chinese authorities may wish to draw on the rich experience and human resources of the Shaanxi Provincial Cultural Relics Bureau to ensure that conservation needs are appropriately addressed while developing the site; Elaborate a comprehensive management plan for this property, taking into due consideration existing management plans, regulations, heritage protection and preservation needs; Expand the protective buffer zones of the Mausoleum, taking into account the most recent archaeological discoveries and consider relocating intrusive elements beyond the extended World Heritage protective zones; Redefine the World Heritage protected core zone of the Terra Cotta Museum complex to include the three pits and identify the rest of the museum complex and its surrounding area as the protected buffer zone with restrictions on new constructions.
The Bureau further requested that a progress report on measures taken to enhance the conservation and development of the property be submitted for examination by the Committee at its 27th session, within the framework of the Periodic Reporting Exercise for the Asia-Pacific Region. The Bureau noted the following threats facing both properties: infiltration of rainwater into the caves; minor cracks on carved surfaces; flaking of the paint layer; infestation of bats and insects within the caves.
The Bureau urged the authorities to consider the mission's detailed recommendations concerning the conservation, management, and presentation of the properties, by revising present methods for stabilizing and cleaning the wall-painting surfaces; testing of new and alternative methods on small wall-painting surfaces; undertaking continuous monitoring of the microclimate conditions in Ajanta Caves; enhancing documentation and archival material to evaluate changing conditions of the wall-painting material; conserving further, the unique natural setting of the Ajanta and Ellora Caves by following the concept of minimal intervention with the historically established environment and giving preference to conservation solutions which involve minimal changes; enhancing co-operation between the complementary ASI branches to enhance the long-term protection and conservation of the two sites.
It reiterated its previous requests to the State Party to report on the progress made in developing a comprehensive management plan and on the measures taken in favour of the conservation and development of Konarak. The Bureau encouraged the authorities responsible for the conservation and management of the property to submit an international assistance request to elaborate the Plan for the mitigation of potential threats caused by illegal encroachment and ad-hoc construction in the areas surrounding the site.
The Bureau noted with appreciation, the high level of conservation of the public monuments composing the Historic Centre of Esfahan, including the Meidan Emam World Heritage area. The Bureau reiterated the importance of maintaining the authenticity and the integrity of the town of Luang Prabang, whose World Heritage values are based on the link between the natural and the built environment as well as on the harmonious fusion and co-existence between the traditional Lao and the late 19th-century European urban patterns and the corresponding architectural styles.
He assured the Bureau of his Government's commitment to follow international conservation norms and the recommendation of the World Heritage Committee to ensure appropriate conservation, management, and presentation of this fragile archaeological site that is simultaneously a centre of international pilgrimage. The Bureau noted that the Vietnamese authorities demined unexploded ordnance at four main monuments since This demining work is progressing slowly, mainly due to lack of funds.
Identification of buried structures as well as unexploded mines was completed in The Bureau requested the World Heritage Centre to report on the progress made in the implementation of this activity at its 27th session in April It requested the authorities to keep the Centre informed of the progress of this project. Furthermore, the report stated that at present no oil was being produced and the oil-field did not have a negative impact on the heritage values of the site.
It further stated that the buffer zone of the Russian part of the Curonian Spit includes shipping routes of the Baltic Sea and the Curonian Bay at a distance of 1 km from the coastline, while the oil rig is situated 22 km from the coast. Within the framework of the Russian-Lithuanian Joint Committee, acting under the Agreement of co-operation in the field of environmental protection, signed by the two Governments in June , Lithuania may participate in the development of appropriate environmental protection measures to mitigate the possible impact of the oil production on the natural environment, should the decision to start oil extraction be taken.
ICOMOS pointed out that the potential impact on the site could be catastrophic, and that the strong tides could cause a "black tide" to threaten in particular the Lithuanian part of the Spit. ICOMOS emphasized that effective and extensive measures should be put in place which could come into effect in case of an accident, and that the EIA and protective measures should be carried out jointly by the Lithuanian and Russian authorities. Furthermore, it requested the Russian and Lithuanian authorities to co-operate closely to develop effective and extensive environmental protection measures as a matter of urgency, should oil extraction commence.
It requested the State Party of Russian Federation to provide a detailed report on the results of the EIA as well as on progress made in the development of the environmental protection measures by 1 October Furthermore, the report pointed out that the quarrying company was elaborating a new extraction and re-cultivation plan, in co-operation with the National Administration for Nature Preservation, in order to meet the criteria for nature and landscape preservation. This report should include a copy of the new extraction and re-cultivation plan and an impact assessment, by 1 October , for examination by the 27th session of the Bureau in April Concerning Stonehenge, the report stated that an application for planning consent for the visitor centre will be submitted during the summer of while the highways consent procedure will be initiated in December With regard to Silbury Hill, English Heritage is continuing to make progress in securing its goal of ensuring the long-term conservation of this large prehistoric man-made mound.
A programme of on-site works was completed by early October and involved both the temporary capping of the hole and the execution of a seismic survey of the Hill, with the aim of identifying zones of structural weakness. The survey will provide additional information as to the original construction of the Hill and subsequent archaeological interventions.
In addition to the survey work, English Heritage has been carrying out further studies of topographical and written sources and will assess whether any further investigations are necessary and whether further physical works, if any, may be required to ensure the long-term conservation of the Hill. The Bureau congratulated the State Party for the work done on the two management plans of Stonehenge and Avebury respectively.
The Bureau expressed its satisfaction regarding the temporary protective works undertaken by the State Party in view of the long-term conservation of Silbury Hill. The Bureau encouraged the State Party to continue the works in close consultation with ICOMOS and the Centre, and requested the authorities to present a progress report in time for its next session in April Starting at dawn, strong intermittent rainfalls brought about an enormous increase in the volume of water drained into the channel of the Rio Vermelho.
The site was seriously endangered by these heavy rains and flooding. An emergency assistance has been requested from the World Heritage Fund. The work has been temporarily halted. This halt will provide a time for reflection for a new concept of the hotel project that will enhance the use of inner spaces patios as links between the buildings.
The national Bureau for Monumental heritage has requested the Secretariat of the Environment of the State Party for a report on the impact of the destruction of the sewage system on the urban tissue. The "Mesa redonda" Quarter, densely populated and located in the buffer zone of the Historic Centre of Lima, was severely damaged by fire caused by fireworks. Two buildings of heritage value were destroyed by fire and four others were severely damaged and are presently supported by temporary structures, and risk damaging twelve others. Prior to the fire, the ensemble of the Historic Centre was identified as being located in a high-risk zone.
The President has also issued another decree authorising the Ministry of Works and Promotion to approve reconstruction projects of public property in the area of the Mesa redonda. In this regard, it should be emphasized that of the 28 commerical galleries, only 6 had permits in order, and that as of July , fireworks had been forbidden in the Historic Centre.
It strongly encouraged the State Party to reinforce its efforts in the implementation of preventive measures against potential natural and man-made risks in the so-called high-risk area of the Historic Centre of Lima. The Bureau also requested the State Party to provide before 1 February for submission to the 27th session of the Bureau, a progress report on the measures undertaken for the rehabilitation and safeguarding of the site. These measures concern the immediate halting of earth removal, the underpinning of some walls that risk collapse, the cleaning of ventilation conducts, the establishment of topographical plans to identify water filtration and the development of tourist circuits.
The Bureau noted that the members of the Commission for the Chavin Master Plan had been pre-selected and that an enlarged Consultative Committee should define the Management Plan. An expert meeting should be held in May to assist the Commission for the Chavin Master Plan in defining this Plan. The second phase will be elaborated and the implementation of the emergency plan, based on an evaluation of the structural stability of the monument for which emergency assistance has been requested. Furthermore, the Observer of Peru confirmed the willingness of the authorities to finalize the Master Plan.
Additional information was requested from the State Party concerning the urgency of their request. As no information had been received by the World Heritage Centre by the time of the Bureau meeting, the Bureau decided that no emergency nomination procedure could be applied. By a fax received on 8 April , the Italian authorities announced that the mixed nomination of L'Archipel de la Maddalena was being withdrawn, in order to resubmit it at a later time as a cultural landscape. The Bureau noted that the authorities in Burkina Faso intend to nominate Arli National Park and other areas as a third extension to "W" National Park Niger and it would be useful to consider both extension proposals at one time.
The Observer of Israel announced that his country, in October , would host a workshop on the Rift Valley with representatives from the Advisory Bodies and interested States Parties from the region. The Delegate of South Africa expressed her concern that both African natural site nominations had been referred and hoped that the Centre, the Committee and the Advisory Bodies will collaborate to improve the capacity of the States Parties to respond to the Committee requests.
Property Uvs Nuur Basin Id. The Bureau commended the States Parties for the development of the two management plans, the signing of transboundary cooperation agreements on scientific research and management, and the steps taken by the Russian authorities to expand the nominated area. It demonstrates an intimate relationship between natural grandeur and spiritual commitment.
Criterion iv Ascetic monasticism in remote areas prevailed in the early Christian church and resulted in the establishment of monastic communities in remote places. St Catherine's Monastery is one of the earliest of these and the oldest to have survived intact, being used for its initial function without interruption since the 6th century.
The Bureau discussed the possible use of criterion i for this property, but concluded that it should not be applied. The Bureau also recommended that the Committee request the State Party to consider the recommendations contained in the ICOMOS evaluation, particularly the need to prepare a visitor management plan for the monastery and the implementation of the sustainable development plan for the town of St.
The State Party should report on progress in these areas to the Committee in the year The State Party welcomed the Bureau's recommendation, noting that during his visit, the Pope had emphasized the importance of this site towards furthering understanding between the different faiths. The spiritual importance of this property as a meeting point for followers of the three Great Monotheistic religions, Christians, Muslims and Jews was stressed.
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If the Committee decides to inscribe the property it should take the opportunity to publicize the message of peace of the World Heritage Convention. Criterion ii With a single site Calakmul displays an exceptionally well preserved series of monuments and open spaces representative of Maya architectural, artistic, and urban development over a period of twelve centuries.
Criterion iii The political and spiritual way of life of the Maya cities of the Tierras Bajas region is admirably demonstrated by the impressive remains of Calakmul. Criterion iv Calakmul is an outstanding example of a significant phase in human settlement and the development of architecture. After some discussion on the application of criterion i , the Bureau left the final decision on its application to the Committee. Historic Town Centre Area Buffer Zone Straslund 80 ha ha Wismar 88 ha ha Total ha ha The Bureau recommended to the Committee that this property be inscribed on the World Heritage List on the basis of cultural criteria ii and iv : Criterion ii Wismar and Stralsund, leading centres of the Wendish section of the Hanseatic League from the 13th to 15th centuries and major administrative and defence centres in the Swedish kingdom in the 17th and 18th centuries, contributed to the development and diffusion of brick construction techniques and building types, characteristic features of Hanseatic towns in the Baltic region, as well as the development of defence systems in the Swedish period.
Criterion iv Stralsund and Wismar have crucial importance in the development of the building techniques and urban form that became typical of the Hanseatic trading towns, well documented in the major parish churches, the town hall of Stralsund, and the commercial building types, such as the Dielenhaus. All three towns were leading centres in the Wendish region of the Hanseatic League in northern Germany, representing complementary aspects in terms of trading, production of goods, and the typology of constructions. The Bureau recommended that special attention be given to the regulation of the design of modern details and the appropriate use of materials and technology in the rehabilitation of historic structures.
The height and design of any new building or addition considered as essential within the historic core area and in its surroundings should respect the traditional skyline and character of the historic town. The Bureau recommended that the buffer zone be extended to the western side of the existing World Heritage site, on the Buda side of the town. Criterion ii The towns of the Val di Noto represent the culmination and final flowering of Baroque art in Europe. Criterion iv The exceptional quality of the late Baroque art and architecture in the Val di Noto lies in its geographical and chronological homogeneity, as well as its quantity, the result of the earthquake in this region.
Criterion v The eight towns of south-eastern Sicily that make up this nomination, which are characteristic of the settlement pattern and urban form of this region, are permanently at risk from earthquakes and eruptions of Mount Etna. Taking into account that the present nomination is limited to the Portuguese fortification of Mazagan, consideration should be given to the possibility of changing the name: " The Portuguese City of Mazagan El Jadida.
Criterion iv Paramaribo is a unique example of the contact between the European culture of the Netherlands and the indigenous cultures and environment of South America in the years of intensive colonization of this region in the 16th and 17th centuries. Criterion iii The site of the Mahabodhi Temple provides exceptional records for the events associated with the life of Buddha and subsequent worship, particularly since Emperor Asoka built the first temple, the balustrades, and the memorial column.
Criterion iv The present Temple is one of the earliest and most imposing structures built entirely in brick from the late Gupta period. The sculpted stone balustrades are an outstanding early example of sculptural reliefs in stone. Criterion vi The Mahabodhi Temple Complex in Bodh Gaya has direct association with the life of the Lord Buddha, being the place where He attained the supreme and perfect insight. Taking note of the ambitious initiatives for the presentation of the site, the Bureau drew the attention of the responsible authorities to the need to continuously monitor the impact that such challenges may have on the religious and spiritual significance of the place.
Criterion iv The churches are the most representative examples of surviving Gothic churches built in horizontal log technique, particularly impressive in their artistic and technical execution, and sponsored by noble families and rulers as symbols of social and political prestige. The Bureau urged the State Party as a matter of priority to monitor and, where necessary, update the fire prevention facilities at all the churches. The Delegate of Finland called attention to fire prevention measures adopted for wooden churches in Scandinavia and recommended that the authorities in the two regions consult on common solutions.
A delegate noted that ICOMOS had changed its recommendation concerning this site between the date of the document preparation and the Bureau session and that texts for the recommendation and criteria were not available for discussion by the Bureau. The Bureau recommended to the Committee that this property be inscribed on the World Heritage List on the basis of cultural criteria ii , iv and v : Criterion ii As one of the most important transport routes in Europe, the Middle Rhine Valley has for two millennia facilitated the exchange of culture between the Mediterranean region and the north.
Criterion iv The Middle Rhine Valley is an outstanding organic cultural landscape, the present-day character of which is determined both by its geomorphological and geological setting and by the human interventions, such as settlements, transport infrastructure, and land-use, that it has undergone over two thousand years.
Criterion v The Middle Rhine Valley is an outstanding example of an evolving traditional way of life and means of communication in a narrow river valley. The terracing of its steep slopes in particular has shaped the landscape in many ways for more than two millennia. However, this form of land-use is under threat from the socio-economic pressures of the present day.
Criterion v The entire landscape of the Tokaji wine region, including both vineyards and long established settlements, vividly illustrates the specialized form of traditional land-use that it represents. The Bureau had a lengthy debate on the question of thematic and comparative studies. Other Delegates and Observers raised the question of consistency, as the Alto Douro Wine Region had been inscribed at the last session of the Committee without the Global Study being available.
A number of delegates queried whether the site could be a transboundary one with Slovakia or whether at a later stage it might be extended to include the Slovakian side. After the decision by the Bureau to recommend inscription, the Chairperson invited both Hungary and Slovakia to comment.
The Delegate of Hungary thanked the Bureau and stated that his country is open to cooperation with Slovakia in the event that a future nomination was to be submitted by this country. The Observer of Slovakia informed the Bureau that her country gives priority to Tokaij in its Tentative List and is preparing a nomination in conformity with the Operational Guidelines.
It attaches high importance to a transboundary nomination of Tokaji by Hungary and Slovakia, as it is an integral vineyard area by reason of the wine tradition, soil and climate. Her country as part of Czechoslovakia registered the "appellation d'origine" of Tokaj wine in at the World Intellectual Property Organization, whereas Hungary did so in The Chairperson encouraged the two States Parties to work together towards the inscription of a future transboundary site.
A delegate encouraged ICOMOS to take into account in its Global Study the question of wine production by autochthonous populations, as was the case in Europe, and vineyards elsewhere, which were started by immigrants to the Americas, Africa and Australia, in different socio-cultural and environmental contexts. Criterion iv The Sacri Monti "Sacred Mountains" of northern Italy represent the successful integration of architecture and fine art into a landscape of great beauty for spiritual reasons at a critical period in the history of the Roman Catholic Church. In the general discussion, one delegate asked that the Centre provide a mechanism to follow up on the special recommendations of the Bureau or Committee.
The Centre responded that these recommendations are always transmitted to the States Parties with the letter containing the decision of the Bureau or Committee, but agreed that a long-term mechanism should be established between the Committee and the State Parties concerned through the Centre to ensure appropriate follow up. Jam is located at the border of Ghor and Herat Province and is believed to have been the site of the 12th century Firuzkuh capital of the Ghurid empire - CE which ruled Afghanistan and parts of India in the 12th - 13th centuries.
The Minaret of Jam, or the "victory tower" is 65 meters tall and is the second highest minaret in the world that directly inspired the Qutb Minar World Heritage property in New Delhi, India. Made of four tapering cylindrical shafts on an octagonal base and a double spiral staircase inside, the minaret was completely decorated with richly decorated brickwork and blue tile inscription at the top. There is an inscription dating the construction of the Minaret to The property is composed of several heritage assets, which include the Minaret, a Jewish cemetery, ruins of three watchtowers, a bridge, fortification walls, a castle, a water reservoir, a bazaar, all located within an area of approximately 5 km 2.
However, at the time, ICOMOS deemed it difficult to accept the nomination due to insufficient information concerning: the state of preservation of the monument, which was judged to be alarming in when two UNESCO experts undertook a technical mission to examine means of consolidating the Minaret; the perimeter of the proposed heritage area, which should be sufficiently large to conserve the quality of the beautiful natural surroundings, as well as the archaeological potential of the site. Upon examination of the evaluation by ICOMOS at its seventh session in June , the Bureau of the World Heritage Committee requested the authorities to redefine the limits of the zone of protection and to provide precise information on the present state of conservation of the monument.
At its seventh session in December , the World Heritage Committee decided to defer consideration of the inscription of the Minaret of Jam on the World Heritage List in light of the fact that the State Party had not provided the information requested by the Bureau. The Director of the World Heritage Centre presented the following information to the Bureau demonstrating the actions taken since the Committee discussed the reactivation of the World Heritage Convention in Afghanistan and the deferred Afghan nominations at its 25th session Helsinki, December : In January , the World Heritage Centre identified the Minaret of Jam as the most appropriate deferred nomination to reactivate.
This was based on careful consideration of the information available concerning the state of conservation of the four deferred nominations, degree of authenticity and integrity of the property, as well as the location, ownership, size, management capacity and threats facing each property. The faculty which, in after ages, was to chronicle the realities developed by time, had at first no employment but to place on record the productions of the imagination.
Hence, fable blossomed and ripened in the remotest antiquity. We see it mingling itself with the primeval history of all nations. It is not improbable that many of the narratives which have been preserved for us, by the bark or parchment of the first rude histories, as serious matters of fact, were originally apologues, or parables, invented to give power and wings to moral lessons, and afterwards modified, in their passage from mouth to mouth, by the well-known magic of credulity.
The most ancient poets graced their productions with apologues. The fable or parable was anciently, as it is even now, a favourite weapon of the most successful orators. When Jotham would show the Shechemites the folly of their ingratitude, he uttered the fable of the Fig-Tree, the Olive, the Vine, and the Bramble.
When the prophet Nathan would oblige David to pass a sentence of condemnation upon himself in the matter of Uriah, he brought before him the apologue of the rich man who, having many sheep, took away that of the poor man who had but one. When Joash, the king of Israel, would rebuke the vanity of Amaziah, the king of Judah, he referred him to the fable of the Thistle and the Cedar. Our blessed Saviour, the best of all teachers, was remarkable for his constant use of parables, which are but fables — we speak it with reverence — adapted to the gravity of the subjects on which he discoursed.
And, in profane history, we read that Stesichorus put the Himerians on their guard against the tyranny of Phalaris by the fable of the Horse and the Stag. Cyrus, for the instruction of kings, told the story of the fisher obliged to use his nets to take the fish that turned a deaf ear to the sound of his flute.
Menenius Agrippa, wishing to bring back the mutinous Roman people from Mount Sacer, ended his harangue with the fable of the Belly and the Members. A Ligurian, in order to dissuade King Comanus from yielding to the Phocians a portion of his territory as the site of Marseilles, introduced into his discourse the story of the bitch that borrowed a kennel in which to bring forth her young, but, when they were sufficiently grown, refused to give it up. In all these instances, we see that fable was a mere auxiliary of discourse — an implement of the orator.
Such, probably, was the origin of the apologues which now form the bulk of the most popular collections. Aesop, who lived about six hundred years before Christ, so far as we can reach the reality of his life, was an orator who wielded the apologue with remarkable skill. From a servile condition, he rose, by the force of his genius, to be the counsellor of kings and states.
His wisdom was in demand far and wide, and on the most important occasions. The pithy apologues which fell from his lips, which, like the rules of arithmetic, solved the difficult problems of human conduct constantly presented to him, were remembered when the speeches that contained them were forgotten. He seems to have written nothing himself; but it was not long before the gems which he scattered began to be gathered up in collections, as a distinct species of literature.
The great and good Socrates employed himself, while in prison, in turning the fables of Aesop into verse. Though but a few fragments of his composition have come down to us, he may, perhaps, be regarded as the father of fable, considered as a distinct art. Induced by his example, many Greek poets and philosophers tried their hands in it. Collections of fables bearing the name of Aesop became current in the Greek language. It was not, however, till the year that the large collection which now bears his name was put forth in Greek prose by Planudes, a monk of Constantinople.
This man turned the life of Aesop itself into a fable; and La Fontaine did it the honour to translate it as a preface to his own collection. Though burdened with insufferable puerilities, it is not without the moral that a rude and deformed exterior may conceal both wit and worth. The collection of fables in Greek verse by Babrias was exceedingly popular among the Romans. It was the favourite book of the Emperor Julian.
Only six of these fables, and a few fragments, remain; but they are sufficient to show that their author possessed all the graces of style which befit the apologue. Some critics place him in the Augustan age; others make him contemporary with Moschus. His work was versified in Latin, at the instance of Seneca; and Quinctilian refers to it as a reading-book for boys. Thus, at all times, these playful fictions have been considered fit lessons for children, as well as for men, who are often but grown-up children. So popular were the fables of Babrias and their Latin translation, during the Roman empire, that the work of Phaedrus was hardly noticed.
The latter was a freedman of Augustus, and wrote in the reign of Tiberius. His verse stands almost unrivalled for its exquisite elegance and compactness; and posterity has abundantly avenged him for the neglect of contemporaries. La Fontaine is perhaps more indebted to Phaedrus than to any other of his predecessors; and, especially in the first six books, his style has much of the same curious condensation. When the seat of the empire was transferred to Byzantium, the Greek language took precedence of the Latin; and the rhetorician Aphthonius wrote forty fables in Greek prose, which became popular.
Besides these collections among the Romans, we find apologues scattered through the writings of their best poets and historians, and embalmed in those specimens of their oratory which have come down to us. The apologues of the Greeks and Romans were brief, pithy, and epigrammatic, and their collections were without any principle of connection.
But, at the same time, though probably unknown to them, the same species of literature was flourishing elsewhere under a somewhat different form. It is made a question, whether Aesop, through the Assyrians, with whom the Phrygians had commercial relations, did not either borrow his art from the Orientals, or lend it to them. This disputed subject must be left to those who have a taste for such inquiries.
Certain it is, however, that fable flourished very anciently with the people whose faith embraces the doctrine of metempsychosis. Among the Hindoos, there are two very ancient collections of fables, which differ from those which we have already mentioned, in having a principle of connection throughout.
They are, in fact, extended romances, or dramas, in which all sorts of creatures are introduced as actors, and in which there is a development of sentiment and passion as well as of moral truth, the whole being wrought into a system of morals particularly adapted to the use of those called to govern. It is written in prose. Both are in the ancient Sanscrit language, and bear the name of a Brahmin, Vishnoo Sarmah, 1 as the author. Sir William Jones, who is inclined to make this author the true Aesop of the world, and to doubt the existence of the Phrygian, gives him the preference to all other fabulists, both in regard to matter and manner.
He has left a prose translation of the Hitopadesa , which, though it may not fully sustain his enthusiastic preference, shows it not to be entirely groundless. We give a sample of it, and select a fable which La Fontaine has served up as the twenty-seventh of his eighth book. It should be understood that the fable, with the moral reflections which accompany it, is taken from the speech of one animal to another. One day he went, in search of game, into a forest on the mountains Vindhya; when, having slain a fawn, and taken it up, he perceived a boar of tremendous size; he therefore threw the fawn on the ground, and wounded the boar with an arrow; the beast, horribly roaring, rushed upon him, and wounded him desperately, so that he fell, like a tree stricken with an axe.
Works of Sir William Jones , vol. Of the Persian book a translation was made in the time of the Calif Mansour, in the eighth century, into Arabic. Wyndham Knatchbull. Sir William Jones says that the word Bidpaii signifies beloved, or favourite, physician. And he adds that the word Pilpay , which has taken the place of Bidpaii in some editions of these fables, is the result simply of a blunder in copying the word Bidpaii from the original.
La Fontaine himself uses the word Pilpay twice in his Fables, viz. This remarkable book was turned into verse by several of the Arabic poets, was translated into Greek, Hebrew, Latin, modern Persian, and, in the course of a few centuries, either directly or indirectly, into most of the languages of modern Europe. The Hitopadesa , the fountain of poetic fables, with its innumerable translations and modifications, seems to have had the greatest charms for the Orientals. Fable slept, with other things, in the dark ages of Europe. Abridgments took the place of the large collections, and probably occasioned the entire loss of some of them.
As literature revived, fable was resuscitated. The crusades had brought European mind in contact with the Indian works which we have already described, in their Arabic dress. Translations and imitations in the European tongues were speedily multiplied. It found its way into most of the northern languages, and became a household book. It undoubtedly had great influence over the taste of succeeding ages, shedding upon the severe and satirical wit of the Greek and Roman literature the rich, mellow light of Asiatic poetry.
The poets of that age were not confined, however, to fables from the Hindoo source. Marie de France, also, in the thirteenth century, versified one hundred of the fables of Aesop, translating from an English collection, which does not now appear to be extant.
It was in that Planudes, already referred to, wrote in Greek prose a collection of fables, prefacing it with a life of Aesop, which, for a long time, passed for the veritable work of that ancient. In the next century, Abstemius wrote two hundred fables in Latin prose, partly of modern, but chiefly of ancient invention. At this time, the vulgar languages had undergone so great changes, that works in them of two or three centuries old could not be understood, and, consequently, the Latin became the favourite language of authors.
Many collections of fables were written in it, both in prose and verse. By the art of printing these works were greatly multiplied; and again the poets undertook the task of translating them into the language of the people. The French led the way in this species of literature, their language seeming to present some great advantages for it. One hundred years before La Fontaine, Corrozet, Guillaume Gueroult, and Philibert Hegemon, had written beautiful fables in verse, which it is supposed La Fontaine must have read and profited by, although they had become nearly obsolete in his time.
It is a remarkable fact, that these poetical fables should so soon have been forgotten. It was soon after their appearance that the languages of Europe attained their full development; and, at this epoch, prose seems to have been universally preferred to poetry. So strong was this preference, that Ogilby, the Scotch fabulist, who had written a collection of fables in English verse, reduced them to prose on the occasion of publishing a more splendid edition in It seems to have been the settled opinion of the critics of that age, as it has, indeed, been stoutly maintained since, that the ornaments of poetry only impair the force of the fable — that the Muses, by becoming the handmaids of old Aesop, part with their own dignity without conferring any on him.
La Fontaine has made such an opinion almost heretical. In his manner there is a perfect originality, and an immortality every way equal to that of the matter which he gathered up from all parts of the great storehouse of human experience. His fables are like pure gold enveloped in solid rock-crystal. In English, a few of the fables of Gay, of Moore, and of Cowper, may be compared with them in some respects, but we have nothing resembling them as a whole. Gay, who has done more than any other, though he has displayed great power of invention, and has given his verse a flow worthy of his master, Pope, has yet fallen far behind La Fontaine in the general management of his materials.
His fables are all beautiful poems, but few of them are beautiful fables. His animal speakers do not sufficiently preserve their animal characters. It is quite otherwise with La Fontaine. His beasts are made most nicely to observe all the proprieties not only of the scene in which they are called to speak, but of the great drama into which they are from time to time introduced. His work constitutes an harmonious whole.
To those who read it in the original, it is one of the few which never cloy the appetite. As in the poetry of Burns, you are apt to think the last verse you read of him the best. But the main object of this Preface was to give a few traces of the life and literary career of our poet. A remarkable poet cannot but have been a remarkable man. Suppose we take a man with native benevolence amounting almost to folly; but little cunning, caution, or veneration; good perceptive, but better reflective faculties; and a dominant love of the beautiful; — and toss him into the focus of civilization in the age of Louis XIV.
It is an interesting problem to find out what will become of him. His father, a man of some substance and station, committed two blunders in disposing of his son. First, he encouraged him to seek an education for ecclesiastical life, which was evidently unsuited to his disposition. Second, he brought about his marriage with a woman who was unfitted to secure his affections, or to manage his domestic affairs. In one other point he was not so much mistaken: he laboured unremittingly to make his son a poet.
Jean was a backward boy, and showed not the least spark of poetical genius till his twenty-second year. His poetical genius did not ripen till long after that time. But his father lived to see him all, and more than all, that he had ever hoped. The truth is, without exception, that every poet is born such; and many are born such of whose poetry the world knows nothing. Every known poet is also somewhat an orator; and as to this part of his character, he is made. And many are known as poets who are altogether made; they are mere second-hand, or orator poets, and are quite intolerable unless exceedingly well made, which is, unfortunately, seldom the case.
It would be wise in them to busy themselves as mere translators. Every one who is born with propensities to love and wonder too strong and deep to be worn off by repetition or continuance, — in other words, who is born to be always young, — is born a poet. The other requisites he has of course.
Les journaux pour enfants en Bibliographie critique - Persée
Upon him the making will never be lost. The richest gems do most honour to their polishing. But they are gems without any. So there are men who pass through the world with their souls full of poetry, who would not believe you if you were to tell them so. Happy for them is their ignorance, perhaps. La Fontaine came near being one of them. All that is artificial in poetry to him came late and with difficulty. Yet it resulted from his keen relish of nature, that he was never satisfied with his art of verse till he had brought it to the confines of perfection.
He did not philosophize over the animals; he sympathized with them. A philosopher would not have lost a fashionable dinner in his admiration of a common ant-hill. La Fontaine did so once, because the well-known little community was engaged in what he took to be a funeral. He could not in decency leave them till it was over. Verse-making out of the question, this was to be a genuine poet, though, with commonplace mortals, it was also to be a fool.
But we will first, in few words, despatch the worst — for there is a very bad part — of his life. It was not specially his life; it was the life of the age in which he lived. The man of strong amorous propensities, in that age and country, who was, nevertheless, faithful to vows of either marriage or celibacy, — the latter vows then proved sadly dangerous to the former, — may be regarded as a miracle.
La Fontaine, without any agency of his own affections, found himself married at the age of twenty-six, while yet as immature as most men are at sixteen. The upshot was, that his patrimony dwindled; and, though he lived many years with his wife, and had a son, he neglected her more and more, till at last he forgot that he had been married, though he unfortunately did not forget that there were other women in the world besides his wife.
His genius and benevolence gained him friends everywhere with both sexes, who never suffered him to want, and who had never cause to complain of his ingratitude. But he was always the special favourite of the Aspasias who ruled France and her kings. To please them, he wrote a great deal of fine poetry, much of which deserves to be everlastingly forgotten. It must be said for him, that his vice became conspicuous only in the light of one of his virtues. His frankness would never allow concealment.
He scandalized his friends Boileau and Racine; still, it is matter of doubt whether they did not excel him rather in prudence than in purity. But, whatever may be said in palliation, it is lamentable to think that a heaven-lighted genius should have been made, in any way, to minister to a hell-envenomed vice, which has caused unutterable woes to France and the world. Some time before he died, he repented bitterly of this part of his course, and laboured, no doubt sincerely, to repair the mischiefs he had done. As we have already said, Jean was a backward boy. But, under a dull exterior, the mental machinery was working splendidly within.
He lacked all that outside care and prudence, — that constant looking out for breakers, — which obstruct the growth and ripening of the reflective faculties. The vulgar, by a queer mistake, call a man absent-minded , when his mind shuts the door, pulls in the latch-string, and is wholly at home. It was nowhere but at home when, riding from Paris to Chateau-Thierry, a bundle of papers fell from his saddle-bow without his perceiving it. The mail-carrier, coming behind him, picked it up, and overtaking La Fontaine, asked him if he had lost anything.
On another occasion he was equally at home. Stopping on a journey, he ordered dinner at an hotel, and then took a ramble about the town. On his return, he entered another hotel, and, passing through into the garden, took from his pocket a copy of Livy, in which he quietly set himself to read till his dinner should be ready.
The book made him forget his appetite, till a servant informed him of his mistake, and he returned to his hotel just in time to pay his bill and proceed on his journey. It will be perceived that he took the world quietly, and his doing so undoubtedly had important bearings on his style. We give another anecdote, which illustrates this peculiarity of his mind as well as the superlative folly of duelling. Not long after his marriage, with all his indifference to his wife, he was persuaded into a fit of singular jealousy. He was intimate with an ex-captain of dragoons, by name Poignant, who had retired to Chateau-Thierry; a frank, open-hearted man, but of extremely little gallantry.
Some person took it in his head to ask La Fontaine why he suffered these constant visits. He is my best friend. It was not, as we have said, till his twenty-second year, that La Fontaine showed any taste for poetry. La Fontaine listened with involuntary transports of joy, admiration, and astonishment, as if a man born with a genius for music, but brought up in a desert, had for the first time heard a well-played instrument.
He set himself immediately to reading Malherbe, passed his nights in learning his verses by heart, and his days in declaiming them in solitary places. He also read Voiture, and began to write verses in imitation. Happily, at this period, a relative named Pintrel directed his attention to ancient literature, and advised him to make himself familiar with Horace, Homer, Virgil, Terence, and Quinctilian.
He accepted this counsel. His great delight, however, was to read Plato and Plutarch, which he did only through translations. The copies which he used are said to bear his manuscript notes on almost every page, and these notes are the maxims which are to be found in his fables. Returning from this study of the ancients, he read the moderns with more discrimination.
His favourites, besides Malherbe, were Corneille, Rabelais, and Marot. In Italian, he read Ariosto, Boccaccio, and Machiavel. In he published his first work, a translation of the Eunuch of Terence. It met with no success. But this does not seem at all to have disturbed its author.
He cultivated verse-making with as much ardour and good-humour as ever; and his verses soon began to be admired in the circle of his friends. No man had ever more devoted friends. Verses that have cost thought are not relished without thought. When a genius appears, it takes some little time for the world to educate itself to a knowledge of the fact. By one of his friends, La Fontaine was introduced to Fouquet, the minister of finance, a man of great power, and who rivalled his sovereign in wealth and luxury.
It was his pride to be the patron of literary men, and he was pleased to make La Fontaine his poet, settling on him a pension of one thousand francs per annum, on condition that he should produce a piece in verse each quarter, — a condition which was exactly complied with till the fall of the minister. Fouquet was a most splendid villain, and positively, though perhaps not comparatively, deserved to fall.
But it was enough for La Fontaine that Fouquet had done him a kindness. He took the part of the disgraced minister, without counting the cost. The good-hearted poet rejoiced exceedingly in its success. Bon-homme was the appellation which his friends pleasantly gave him, and by which he became known everywhere; — and never did a man better deserve it in its best sense. He was good by nature — not by the calculation of consequences.
Indeed it does not seem ever to have occurred to him that kindness, gratitude, and truth, could have any other than good consequences. He was truly a Frenchman without guile, and possessed to perfection that comfortable trait, — in which French character is commonly allowed to excel the English, — good-humour with the whole world.
Boileau hired a small chamber in the Faubourg Saint Germain, where they all met several times a week; for La Fontaine, at the age of forty-four, had left Chateau-Thierry, and become a citizen of Paris. Here they discussed all sorts of topics, admitting to their society Chapelle, a man of less genius, but of greater conversational powers, than either of them — a sort of connecting link between them and the world. Four poets, or four men, could hardly have been more unlike. The first thing which they did was to banish from among them all rules of conversation, and everything which savours of the academic conference.
When they met, and had sufficiently discussed their amusements, if chance threw them upon any point of science or belles-lettres, they profited by the occasion; it was, however, without dwelling too long on the same subject, flitting from one thing to another like the bees that meet divers sorts of flowers on their way. Neither envy, malice, nor cabal, had any voice among them. They adored the works of the ancients, never refused due praise to those of the moderns, spoke modestly of their own, and gave each other sincere counsel, when any one of them — which rarely happened — fell into the malady of the age, and published a book.
The absent-mindedness of our fabulist not unfrequently created much amusement on these occasions, and made him the object of mirthful conspiracies. Once, after having done so, he privately told a stranger, who was present with them, the wits would have worried themselves in vain; they could not have obliterated the bon-homme. La Fontaine, as we have said, was an admirer of Rabelais; — to what a pitch, the following anecdote may show. The latter took it upon him to set forth the merits of St.
Augustin in a pompous eulogium. La Fontaine, plunged in one of his habitual reveries, listened without hearing. At last, rousing himself as if from a profound sleep, to prove that the conversation had not been lost upon him, he asked the doctor, with a very serious air, whether he thought St. Augustin had as much wit as Rabelais. It was in that La Fontaine published his first collection of fables, under the modest title Fables Choisies, mises en Vers , in a quarto volume, with figures designed and engraved by Chauveau.
It contained six books, and was dedicated to the Dauphin. Many of the fables had already been published in a separate form. The success of this collection was so great, that it was reprinted the same year in a smaller size. Fables had come to be regarded as beneath poetry; La Fontaine established them at once on the top of Parnassus. The ablest poets of his age did not think it beneath them to enter the lists with him; and it is needless to say they came off second best. To her he wrote verses abundantly, as he did to all who made him the object of their kind regard. Indeed, notwithstanding his avowed indolence, or rather passion for quiet and sleep, his pen was very productive.
The prose is said to be better than the verse; but this can hardly be true in respect to the following lines, in which the poet under the apt name of Polyphile, in a hymn addressed to Pleasure, undoubtedly sketches himself:—. The characteristic grace and playfulness of this seem to defy translation. To the mere English reader, the sense may be roughly given thus:—. The same Polyphile, in recounting his adventures on a visit to the infernal regions, tells us that he saw, in the hands of the cruel Eumenides,. We were charmed with them the other day at M. And the Pumpkin — and the Nightingale — they are worthy of the first volume!
He seemed himself not insensible where his strength lay, and seldom ventured upon any other ground, except at the instance of his friends. With all his lightness, he felt a deep veneration for religion — the most spiritual and rigid which came within the circle of his immediate acquaintance. He admired Jansenius and the Port Royalists, and heartily loved Racine, who was of their faith.
To this work he pressed La Fontaine, whom he called his particular friend, to lend his name and contributions. He was born in , and died a voluntary exile in Belgium, Boileau wrote his epitaph. His chief work in moral theology was published in seven vols. He died in Thus does the Bon-homme treat the subtle Escobar, the prince and prototype of the moralists of expediency.
To translate his artless and delicate irony is hardly possible. The writer of this hasty Preface offers the following only as an attempted imitation:—. The verses of La Fontaine did more for his reputation than for his purse. His paternal estate wasted away under his carelessness; for, when the ends of the year refused to meet, he sold a piece of land sufficient to make them do so.
His wife, no better qualified to manage worldly gear than himself, probably lived on her family friends, who were able to support her, and who seem to have done so without blaming him. But his purpose strangely vanished. He called at his own house, learned from the domestic, who did not know him, that Madame La Fontaine was in good health, and passed on to the house of a friend, where he tarried two days, and then returned to Paris without having seen his wife. All this is no more than half true: my affairs occupy me as much as they deserve to — that is to say not at all; but the leisure which they leave me — it is not poetry, but idleness, which makes away with it.
This confession, the immortality of which was so little foreseen by its author, liberally rendered, amounts to the following:—. It is clear that a man who provided so little for himself needed good friends to do it; and Heaven kindly furnished them. Her husband, M. He did all honour to the sincerity of his amiable hostess; and, if he ever showed a want of independence, he certainly did not of gratitude. Compliments of more touching tenderness we nowhere meet than those which La Fontaine has paid to his benefactress.
He published nothing which was not first submitted to her eye, and entered into her affairs and friendships with all his heart. He was then seventy-two years of age, had turned his attention to personal religion, and received the seal of conversion at the hands of the Roman Catholic church. In his conversion, as in the rest of his life, his frankness left no room to doubt his sincerity. The writings which had justly given offence to the good were made the subject of a public confession, and everything in his power was done to prevent their circulation. The death of one who had done so much for him, and whose last days, devoted with the most self-denying benevolence to the welfare of her species, had taught him a most salutary lesson, could not but be deeply felt.
He had just left the house of his deceased benefactress, never again to enter it, when he met M. A reply could not have more characteristic. The fabulist had not in him sufficient hypocrisy of which to manufacture the commonplace politeness of society. His was the politeness of a warm and unsuspecting heart. He never concealed his confidence in the fear that it might turn out to be misplaced. His second collection of fables, containing five books, La Fontaine published in , with a dedication to Madame de Montespan; the previous six books were republished at the same time, revised, and enlarged.
The twelfth book was not added till many years after, and proved, in fact, the song of the dying swan. For this purpose he repaired to Versailles, and after having well delivered himself of his compliment to royalty, perceived that he had forgotten to bring the book which he was to present; he was, nevertheless, favourably received, and loaded with presents. But it is added, that, on his return, he also lost, by his absence of mind, the purse full of gold which the king had given him, which was happily found under a cushion of the carriage in which he rode.
In his advertisement to the second part of his Fables, La Fontaine informs the reader that he had treated his subjects in a somewhat different style. In fact, in his first collection, he had timidly confined himself to the brevity of Aesop and Phaedrus; but, having observed that those fables were most popular in which he had given most scope to his own genius, he threw off the trammels in the second collection, and, in the opinion of the writer, much for the better.
His subjects, too, in the second part, are frequently derived from the Indian fabulists, and bring with them the richness and dramatic interest of the Hitopadesa. Of all his fables, the Oak and the Reed is said to have been the favourite of La Fontaine. But his critics have almost unanimously given the palm of excellence to the Animals sick of the Plague, the first of the seventh book. Its exquisite poetry, the perfection of its dialogue, and the weight of its moral, well entitle it to the place. That must have been a soul replete with honesty, which could read such a lesson in the ears of a proud and oppressive court.
Indeed, we may look in vain through this encyclopaedia of fable for a sentiment which goes to justify the strong in their oppression of the weak. Even in the midst of the fulsome compliments which it was the fashion of his age to pay to royalty, La Fontaine maintains a reserve and decency peculiar to himself. By an examination of his fables, we think, we might fairly establish for him the character of an honest and disinterested lover and respecter of his species. But it is not the purpose of this brief Preface to criticize the Fables.
It is sufficient to say, that the work occupies a position in French literature, which, after all has been said that can be for Gay, Moore, and other English versifiers of fables, is left quite vacant in ours. Our author was elected a member of the French Academy in , and received with the honour of a public session. In that distinguished body of men he was a universal favourite, and none, perhaps, did more to promote its prime object — the improvement of the French language.
We have already seen how he was regarded by some of the greatest minds of his age. I believe that, of all authors, La Fontaine is the most universally read. He is for all minds and all ages. He instructs while he sports, persuades men to virtue by means of beasts, and exalts trifling subjects to the sublime; a man unique in his species of composition, always original, whether he invents or translates, — who has gone beyond his models, himself a model hard to imitate.
La Fontaine, as we have said, devoted his latter days to religion. In this he was sustained and cheered by his old friends Racine and De Maucroix. Death overtook him while applying his poetical powers to the hymns of the church. For these two months I have not gone abroad, except occasionally to attend the Academy, for a little amusement. Yesterday, as I was returning from it, in the middle of the Rue du Chantre, I was taken with such a faintness that I really thought myself dying.
O, my friend, to die is nothing: but think you how I am going to appear before God! You know how I have lived. Before you receive this billet, the gates of eternity will perhaps have been opened upon me! If, however, you have not strength to write, beg M. Racine to do me that kindness, the greatest he can ever do for me. Adieu, my good, my old, and my true friend. May God, in his infinite, goodness, take care of the health of your body, and that of your soul. Gilles Corrozet was one of the French fabulists immediately preceding La Fontaine. He was a Parisian bookseller-author who lived between and One, oats; the other, silver of the tax.
Martin of Tours wore mirrors on their shoes, even while officiating in church. He is said to have applied the fable to the Great Mogul and his innumerable dependent potentates. Lokman is said to have flourished about B. Rabelais also has a version of the story of this fable, vide Gargantua , Book I. Flavius Avianus lived in the fifth century. His Aesopian Fables were written in Latin verse. The plants and trees, 2 with smiling features,. This is in reply to certain of his critics who pronounced his work puerile, and pretended to wish him to adopt the higher forms of poetry.
Some of the fables of the first six Books were originally published in a semi-private way before See the Translators Preface. Fable I. Fable IV. Gabriel Faerno was an Italian writer who published fables in Latin. Perrault translated these into French verse, and published them at Paris in Faerno was also a famous editor of Terence.
Laurentius Abstemius, or Astemio, was an Italian fabulist of the fifteenth century. After their first publication his fables often appeared in editions of Aesop. No other than a villain could be fined. The wisdom of each decision lies in taking advantage of a doubtful case to convict two well-known rogues of — previous bad character. Vive la ligue! Diogenes Laertius tells the story of this fable of Thales of Miletus. Which graced the chin of Polyphemus; The peacock 25 to the queen of heaven. It is said to have been called Areiopagos the Hill of Mars because, according to tradition, the first trial there was that of Mars for the murder of Halirrhotius.
Malherbe was born in , and died in As a poet he was a pupil of Malherbe. His works were praised by Boileau, and he was one of the earliest members of the French Academy. Perhaps the fable finds a more appropriate application in the relation of employer to employed. I leave the fabulists and the political economists to settle the question between them. Progne was Queen of Thrace, and was changed into a swallow. Her sister was changed into a nightingale; vide Ovid, Metamorphoses.
See Fable II. Book VII. According to Herodotus, I. He asked to be allowed to play a tune; and as soon as he had finished he threw himself into the sea. It was then found that the music had attracted a number of dolphins round the ship, and one of these took the bard on its back and conveyed him safely to Taenarus. At his death Juno either transformed him into the peacock, or transferred his hundred eyes to the tail of that, her favourite, bird.
Saith Merlin, 16 who bamboozled are. For this I quote the Phrygian slave. Which Titans waged against the Thunder-king. Old Dindenaut, 25 in sheep who dealt,. Its owner has not ceased to wear. The character in Rabelais is a sheep-stealer as well as a sheep-dealer. This is Babrias, the Greek fabulist, to whom La Fontaine gives the older form of his name. It was not till a century after La Fontaine wrote, that the fame of Babrias was cleared by Bentley and Tyrwhitt, who brought his Fables to light in their original form.
The last line refers the reader to the following fable for comparison. See note to preceding fable. Thence till the kalends of the Greeks, This fable in its earlier form will be found in Phaedrus, I. Thence lodged the goddess to her mind. This collection was published in , ten years after the publication of the foregoing six Books.
Of wedding thorns from wooing roses. The intention of the fable is to recommend prudence and good nature, not celibacy. So the peerless Granville understands it, for his pencil tells us that the hero of the fable did finally recall his wife, notwithstanding his fearful imprecation. It seems that even she was better than none. The two last lines refer the reader to the next fable. See note to next fable. He was the eldest brother of the Duke de Boufflers.
There was something very extraordinary in the affair itself: the fable is pretty; but not to be compared to the one that follows it: I do not understand the Milk-pot. And found her sitting at his door. Also in the Lokman Collection. Another 28 swears, in plainest terms,. Thus when the water crooks a stick, Sir Paul Neal, whose lapsus suggested this fable, thought he had discovered an animal in the moon.
Fable XXVI. He lived B. The European powers then found themselves exhausted by wars, and desirous of peace. England, the only neutral, became, of course, the arbiter of the negotiations which ensued at Nimeguen. All the belligerent parties invoked her mediation. Charles II. Can soften hearts, and lull this war to sleep, 5. De Barillon. De Barillon was a great friend of La Fontaine, and also of other literary lights of the time. When pointing at the object dear. See also Fable XIX. Hence La Fontaine makes his capon, who knew how to shun a similar fate, le Normand et demi — the Norman and a half.
See Fable XVI. To swim, with wind against your face. That sculptor fell in love with his statue of the nymph Galatea, to which Venus gave life at his request. See Ovid, Metam. Book X. And leave the parties — purse and cards. The last-mentioned character is a farmer, but, like the others, he is a species of incapable; and the word dandin in the old French dictionaries is given as signifying inaptness or incapacity.
The Hornet and the Bees. On Mount Hymettus, 15 first, they say,. He is further credited with the vanity of wishing to be thought a god, and hence of throwing himself into Mount Etna to conceal his death. Unfortunately for the success of this scheme, says one story, he convicted himself of suicide by inadvertently leaving his slippers at the foot of the volcano.
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The former, having invited the Spanish court to a splendid entertainment in his palace, had it set on fire, that he might personally rescue the said lady from its flames. More power to some mightier king. They say that beasts are mere machines; 3. Bore Pallas, 13 erst my mortal foe, This Progne 15 takes my lawful prey. She was changed into a spider: vide Ovid, Metam.
The talking bird had left the shore; It appeared for the first time in the edition of The duke was the son of Louis and Madame de Montespan. He caused his brother Theyestes to banquet on the flesh of his own children. And Lambert 10 loses half his fame. Lulli, who was chapel-music master. A bird the Fates 14 had kept in fee,. His commentators, however, think the observers must have been in some measure mistaken, and I agree with them.
In Fable I. All Europe to our sovereign yields, With power to conquer Fate and Time. Louis to some extent negotiated the treaty of this peace in person, and having bought the support of the English king, Charles II. He was the son of Louis de Bourbon, the Dauphin, to whom La Fontaine had dedicated the first collection of his Fables. See note, Dedication of Book I. The Dauphin was then in command of the army in Germany. He lived between and See note to Epilogue of Book XI. Indeed, variations of text are common to most of the fables of the XIIth Book, on making the same comparison, viz.
The custom also prevailed in Italy. Such terror did Patroclus 17 spread,. See Note to Table IV. The context shows that La Fontaine was over seventy when this fable was written. So Fate and Louis 19 would seem able. One age entire with you would Hymen dwell: He was born in Paris, , and died in To serve for aye as guide to Love.
See, for M. He was by no means such a fool. The heart, so far as in my judgment lies. The text of the later issue is slightly abridged. Your prince 37 once told you, I have heard,. She was a visitor at the English embassy in Paris, and moved in the highest circles generally of that city; a circumstance which enabled La Fontaine to make her acquaintance and secure her as one of his best friends and patrons. She died in She was at this time in England, where she died at Chelsea in She married the Duke de la Meilleraie, but it was stipulated that she should adopt the name and arms of Mazarin.
Fable XII. Louis XIV. He had adopted the sun as his emblem. With Notes by J. This web edition published by eBooks Adelaide. Last updated Wednesday, December 17, at Preface to the Present Edition, with some account of the Translator. The Fly and the Game. With merry heart the fellow went Direct to Mr. Centpercent, Who loved, as well was understood, Whatever game was nice and good. The lady thought the creatures prime, And for their dinner just in time; So sweet they were, and delicate, For dinner she could hardly wait. But now there came — could luck be worse?
The Dog and Cat. A dog and cat, messmates for life, Were often falling into strife, Which came to scratching, growls, and snaps, And spitting in the face, perhaps. A neighbour dog once chanced to call Just at the outset of their brawl, And, thinking Tray was cross and cruel, To snarl so sharp at Mrs. It seems, in spite of all his snarling, And hers, that Tray was still her darling.
The Golden Pitcher. A father once, whose sons were two, For each a gift had much ado. These treasures if you can but find, Each may be suited to his mind; For both are precious in their kind. But O, of this, I pray, beware! Or, if there could, how could it dwell Within their own old, mossy well?
The well was open to the sky. The mystery is clear to me; That richer gift to all is free. Be only as that water true, And then the whole belongs to you. That truth itself was worth so much, It cannot be supposed that such. A pair of lads were satisfied; And yet they were before they died.
Party Strife. Among the beasts a feud arose. The lion, as the story goes, Once on a time laid down His sceptre and his crown; And in his stead the beasts elected, As often as it suited them, A sort of king pro tem. The horse, the stag, the unicorn, Were chosen each in turn; And then the noble bird That looks undazzled at the sun. But party strife began to run Through burrow, den, and herd. Some beasts proposed the patient ox, And others named the cunning fox.
The quarrel came to bites and knocks; Nor was it duly settled Till many a beast high-mettled Had bought an aching head, Or, possibly, had bled. The fox, as one might well suppose, At last above his rival rose, But, truth to say, his reign was bootless, Of honour being rather fruitless.
All prudent beasts began to see The throne a certain charm had lost, And, won by strife, as it must be, Was hardly worth the pains it cost. So when his majesty retired, Few worthy beasts his seat desired. Especially now stood aloof The wise of head, the swift of hoof, The beasts whose breasts were battle-proof. The Cat and the Thrush. A thrush that sang one rustic ode Once made a garden his abode, And gave the owner such delight, He grew a special favourite.
And yet his song was still the same; It even grew somewhat more tame. Professing search of mice and moles, He through the garden daily strolls, And never seeks our thrush to catch; But when his consort comes to hatch, Just eats the young ones in a batch. The sadness of the pair bereaved Their generous guardian sorely grieved.
But yet it could not be believed His faithful cat was in the wrong, Though so the thrush said in his song. And Gaffer Thrush directly found His throat, when raised above the ground, Gave forth a softer, sweeter sound. New tunes, moreover, he had caught, By perils and afflictions taught, And found new things to sing about: New scenes had brought new talents out. Let Genius tell in verse and prose.
How much to praise and friends it owes. Good sense may be, as I suppose, As much indebted to its foes. Advertisement To the First Edition of this Translation. By The Translator. What will ye say, ye future days, If I, for once, in honest rhymes, Recount to you the deeds and ways Of our abominable times? Viens donc. Delight, Delight, who didst as mistress hold The finest wit of Grecian mould, Disdain not me; but come, And make my house thy home. Ballade Sur Escobar. Ballad Upon Escobar. Good cause has Rome to reprobate The bishop who disputes her so; His followers reject and hate All pleasures that we taste below.
Seek we the better world afar? Indeed, if circumstances drive, Defraud, or take false oaths you may, Or to the charms of life give way, When Love must needs the door unbar. Now, would to God that one would state The pith of all his works to me. What boots it to enumerate? As well attempt to drain the sea! To Monseigneur The Dauphin. With me all natures use the gift of speech; Yea, in my work, the very fishes preach, And to our human selves their sermons suit. Of meat or of bread, Not a morsel she had! So a begging she went, To her neighbour the ant, For the loan of some wheat, Which would serve her to eat, Till the season came round.
Well, your coat, sir, is a brave one! So black and glossy, on my word, sir, With voice to match, you were a bird, sir, Well fit to be the Phoenix of these days. Is this enough? Two mules were bearing on their backs, One, oats; the other, silver of the tax. Well with the silver pleased, They by the bridle seized The treasure-mule so vain. Poor mule! A prouder, fatter, sleeker Tray, No human mortal owns. For all your fellows here, I see, Are shabby wretches, lean and gaunt, Belike to die of haggard want.
With such a pack, of course it follows, One fights for every bit he swallows. Come, then, with me, and share On equal terms our princely fare. Again, as the bravest, the third must be mine. Redress shall instantly be given to each. Come, monkey, now, first let us have your speech. You see these quadrupeds, your brothers; Comparing, then, yourself with others, Are you well satisfied? Is not my visage comely as the best?
Not he; — himself he lauds without restraint. The elephant he needs must criticize; To crop his ears and stretch his tail were wise; A creature he of huge, misshapen size. The elephant, though famed as beast judicious, While on his own account he had no wishes, Pronounced dame whale too big to suit his taste; Of flesh and fat she was a perfect waste. The little ant, again, pronounced the gnat too wee; To such a speck, a vast colossus she. Each censured by the rest, himself content, Back to their homes all living things were sent. Such folly liveth yet with human fools.
For others lynxes, for ourselves but moles. Great blemishes in other men we spy, Which in ourselves we pass most kindly by. The pouch behind our own defects must store, The faults of others lodge in that before. Though such a bird as I Knows how to hide or fly, You birds a caution need. See you that waving hand? It scatters on the land What well may cause alarm. Great multitudes I fear, Of you, my birdies dear, That falling seed, so little, Will bring to cage or kettle!