BASICS Biochemie (German Edition)
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This is why humans breathe in oxygen and breathe out carbon dioxide. In vertebrates , vigorously contracting skeletal muscles during weightlifting or sprinting, for example do not receive enough oxygen to meet the energy demand, and so they shift to anaerobic metabolism , converting glucose to lactate. The liver regenerates the glucose, using a process called gluconeogenesis. This process is not quite the opposite of glycolysis, and actually requires three times the amount of energy gained from glycolysis six molecules of ATP are used, compared to the two gained in glycolysis.
Analogous to the above reactions, the glucose produced can then undergo glycolysis in tissues that need energy, be stored as glycogen or starch in plants , or be converted to other monosaccharides or joined into di- or oligosaccharides. The combined pathways of glycolysis during exercise, lactate's crossing via the bloodstream to the liver, subsequent gluconeogenesis and release of glucose into the bloodstream is called the Cori cycle.
Researchers in biochemistry use specific techniques native to biochemistry, but increasingly combine these with techniques and ideas developed in the fields of genetics , molecular biology and biophysics. There is not a defined line between these disciplines. Biochemistry studies the chemistry required for biological activity of molecules, molecular biology studies their biological activity, genetics studies their heredity, which happens to be carried by their genome.
This is shown in the following schematic that depicts one possible view of the relationships between the fields: . Glucose and sucrose are also found in varying quantities in various fruits, and sometimes exceed the fructose present. However, peaches contain more sucrose 6. Oct, Vol. American Journal of Biomedical Sciences. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For the journals, see Biochemistry journal and Biological Chemistry journal. Index Outline. Main article: History of biochemistry.
Main articles: Composition of the human body and Dietary mineral. Main article: Biomolecule. Main articles: Carbohydrate , Monosaccharide , Disaccharide , and Polysaccharide. Glucose, a monosaccharide. Amylose , a polysaccharide made up of several thousand glucose units. Main articles: Lipid , Glycerol , and Fatty acid. Main articles: Protein and Amino acid. Main article: Carbohydrate metabolism. Main article: Gluconeogenesis. Main article: Outline of biochemistry. Important publications in biochemistry chemistry List of biochemistry topics List of biochemists List of biomolecules.
Trends in Biochemical Sciences. Molecular cell biology 4th ed. New York: Scientific American Books. Biochemistry 5th ed. W H Freeman. Genetics Home Reference. Retrieved 31 December Molecular Biology of the Cell, Sixth Edition. Garland Science. Amsler, Mark University of Delaware Press. Astbury, W. Bibcode : Natur. Ben-Menahem, Ari Historical Encyclopedia of Natural and Mathematical Sciences. Berlin: Springer. Bibcode : henm. Burton, Feldman Arcade Publishing. Butler, John M. Academic Press.
COLOR OF ATLAS OF BIOCHEMISTRY
Sen, Chandan K. DNA and Cell Biology. Clarence, Peter Berg Edwards, Karen J. Journal of Molecular Biology. Eldra P. Solomon; Linda R. Berg; Diana W. Martin Biology, 8th Edition, International Student Edition. Archived from the original on Fariselli, P. Briefings in Bioinformatics. Fiske, John Boston and New York: Houghton, Mifflin. Retrieved 16 February Lippincott's Illustrated Reviews: Pharmacology 4th ed. Krebs, Jocelyn E. Essential Genes. Fromm, Herbert J.
Biochemistry - Wikipedia
Essentials of Biochemistry. Hamblin, Jacob Darwin Helvoort, Ton van Arne Hessenbruch ed. Reader's Guide to the History of Science. Fitzroy Dearborn Publishing. Holmes, Frederic Lawrence University of Wisconsin Press. Horton, Derek, ed. Advances in Carbohydrate Chemistry and Biochemistry, Volume Hunter, Graeme K.
Karp, Gerald Cell and Molecular Biology: Concepts and Experiments. Kauffman, George B. The Chemical Educator. Knowles, J. Annual Review of Biochemistry. Miller G; Spoolman Scott Cengage Learning. Retrieved Nielsen, Forrest H. Maurice E. Shils; et al. Ultratrace minerals; Modern nutrition in health and disease. Peet, Alisa Marks, Allan; Lieberman Michael A.
Rayner-Canham, Marelene F. Chemical Heritage Foundation. Rojas-Ruiz, Fernando A. For example, in a flashlight,potential difference—i. Inwence and a capacity factor, which is a mea-sure of the quantity of the substance beingtransported here it is the weight of thewwater. In the case of electrical work A2 ,the intensity factor is the voltage—i. In the musculature see p. The intensity heat energy. A form of storage for chemicalfactor here is the chemical potential of a mol- energy that is used in all forms of life is aden-ecule or combination of molecules.
This is osine triphosphate ATP; see p. When molecules spon- pling to the strongly exergonic breakdowntaneously react with one another, the result is of ATP see p. Physical Chemistry 17HigherA. Mechanical work 2. Electrical work 3. Exergonic 2. Equilibrium 3. Endergonic 4. The relationship, but opposite signs below. By contrast, transfer can proceed.
In ATP see involved in proton exchange reactions see p. The dissociation state of an acid—basep. Usu-high chemical potential.
Its transfer to water ally, it is not this concentration itself that is reaction a, below is therefore strongly exer- expressed, but its negative decadic logarithm, the pH value. The connection between the pHmgonic. The equilibrium of the reaction value and the dissociation state is described. As a measure of the proton transfermore than The acid of the pair with the lower pKathis way. The synthesis of glutamine from value the stronger acid—in this case aceticthese preliminary stages is only possible acid, CH3COOH can protonate green arrow through energetic coupling see pp.
For a single redox system seep. Theelectron transfer potential of a redox system i. Physical Chemistry 19A. Both of these statements arefactors—e. Two the Second Law of Thermodynamics. Thefurther factors associated with molecular connection between changes in enthalpychanges occurring during the reaction are dis- and entropy is described quantitatively bycussed here. The following examples will helpA. In the knall-gas oxyhydrogen reactionAll chemical reactions involve heat exchange. Like many redoxexothermic, and those that consume heat reactions, this reaction is strongly exothermicare called endothermic.
Heat exchange is i. The total num-heat of reaction. This corresponds to the ber of molecules is reduced by one-third, and a more highly ordered liquid is formed from. In exo- freely moving gas molecules. Never-magnitude see B1, for example. This fact is theless, the process still occurs spontane-used to estimate the caloric content of foods.
Inmdized by oxygen to CO2 and H2O see p. Processes of thisamount in a calorimeter in an oxygen atmo- type are described as being entropy-driven. The folding of proteins see p. The heat of the reaction increases the formation of ordered lipid structures in waterwater temperature in the calorimeter. The reason for thisis that changes in the degree of order of thesystem also strongly affect the progress of areaction. This change is measured as the en-tropy change 'S. Entropy is a physical value that describesthe degree of order of a system.
The lower thedegree of order, the larger the entropy.
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Physical Chemistry 21A. Heat of reaction and calorimetry Thermometer Ignition wire to start the reactionTemperatureinsulation 6 6Pressurized 5 5metal 4 4container 3 3Sample 2 2 1 1Stirrer 1 1 2 Water Combustion 2 Water Water 3 3 heated 4 An enthalpy of 4 1kJ warms 1 l of water 5 by 0. Gibbs-Helmholtz equation degree of order. The velocity v of a chemical reaction is deter-However, it does not tell us anything about mined experimentally by observing thethe rate of the reaction—i. In the example shownA. This is Reaction rates are influenced not only by the.
The educt A and the product B are each proportional to the concentration [A] of thisat a specific chemical potential Ge and Gp, substance, and a first-order reaction is in- volved. When two educts, A and B, reactdrespectively. In this case, the rate v is proportional to the product ofence between these two potentials. To be the educt concentrations 12 mM2 at theconverted into B, A first has to overcome a top, 24 mM2 in the middle, and 36 mM2 atpotential energy barrier, the peak of which, the bottom.
The proportionality factors k and kn are the rate constants of the reaction. TheymGa, lies well above Ge. The potential differenceare not dependent on the reaction concentra-. The fact that A can be converted into B at all In B, only the kinetics of simple irreversible reactions is shown.
More complicated cases,is because the potential Ge only represents such as reaction with three or more reversiblethe average potential of all the molecules. When the increase inwenergy thus gained is greater than Ea, thesemolecules can overcome the barrier and bewconverted into B. The energy distribution for agroup of molecules of this type, as calculated steps, can usually be broken down into first-from a simple model, is shown in 2 and 3. The typical activation energies of chemicalreactions are much higher.
The course ofthe energy function at energies of around50 kJ mol—1 is shown in 3. Physical Chemistry 23 A. Reaction rate 1. Since catalysts we can look at the disproportionation of hy-emerge from the catalyzed reaction withoutbeing changed, even small amounts are usu- drogen peroxide H2O2 into oxygen andally suf cient to cause a powerful acceleration water. In the uncatalyzed reaction at theof the reaction. In the cell, enzymes see p.
A few chemical top , an H2O2 molecule initially decays intochanges are catalyzed by special RNA mole- H2O and atomic oxygen O , which then reactscules, known as ribozymes see p. The activation energy Ea required for this reaction is rela- tively high, at 75 kJ mol—1. In the presence of iodide I— as a catalyst, the reaction takes a different course bottom. The intermediateA. In this step, the I— ion is releasedactivation energy see p. Thehighest point on the reaction coordinates cor- inum Pt are also effective catalysts for theresponds to an energetically unfavorable tran- breakdown of H2O2.
Catalase see p. When all of the transition states much more catalytically effective still. Since the starting water, supported by amino acid residues ofpoints and end points are the same in both the enzyme protein. Cat- heme group, and then transferred from therewalysts—including enzymes—are in principle to the second H2O2 molecule. The activation energy of the enzyme-catalyzed reaction isnot capable of altering the equilibrium state only 23 kJ mol—1, which in comparison withof the catalyzed reaction.
A single molecule can con- vert up to a hundred million H2O2 mol- ecules per second. However,its activation energy is lower than in the un-catalyzed reaction. Physical Chemistry 25A. Energy profile without catalyst 2. Energy profile with catalystB. Catalysis of H2O2 — breakdown by iodide. In ice,absolutely dependent on it. The properties of most of the water molecules are fixed in awater are therefore of fundamental impor- hexagonal lattice 3. Since the distance be-tance to all living things. This fact is of immense biologicalThe special properties of water H2O become importance—it means, for example, that inapparent when it is compared with methane winter, ice forms on the surface of open CH4.
The two molecules have a similar mass stretches of water first, and the water rarelyand size. Nevertheless, the boiling point of freezes to the bottom.
The high boiling point of water results In contrast to most other liquids, water is anfrom its high vaporization enthalpy, which in excellent solvent for ions. In the electrical field of cations and anions, the dipolar water. They form hydration shells and shielddistributed. Two corners of the tetrahedrally- the central ion from oppositely charged ions.
Indshared electrons green , and the other two the inner hydration sphere of this type of ion,eby hydrogen atoms. As a result, the H—O—H the water molecules are practically immobi- lized and follow the central ion. Water has abond has an angled shape. In addition, the high dielectric constant of 78—i. Electrically charged groups in organic molecules e. Neutral molecules withspondingly positively charged.
The spatial several hydroxy groups, such as glycerol onseparation of the positive and negative the left or sugars, are also easily soluble,charges gives the molecule the properties of because they can form H bonds with wateran electrical dipole. Water molecules are molecules. The higher the proportion of polarwtherefore attracted to one another like tinymagnets, and are also connected by hydrogenbonds B see p. When liquid water vapor-wizes, a large amount of energy has to be ex-pended to disrupt these interactions.
By con-wtrast, methane molecules are not dipolar, andtherefore interact with one another only functional groups there is in a molecule, theweakly. This is why liquid methane vaporizes more water-soluble hydrophilic it is. By con-at very low temperatures. These compounds are called hydrophobic see p. The dipolar nature of water molecules favorsthe formation of hydrogen bonds see p. Each molecule can act either as a donor or anacceptor of H bonds, and many molecules inliquid water are therefore connected by Hbonds 1.
The bonds are in a state of constantfluctuation. Physical Chemistry 27A. Structure of water and ice Liquid water density 1.
Ethanol 3. Hydration Ice Density 0. Such substances are said to be apolar Molecules that contain both polar and apolaror hydrophobic. This group includes soaps see p. In 1 , the individual terms of regions of the molecule and water. On waterthe Gibbs—Helmholtz equation see p. Soap bubbles right consist of double films, with a thin layer of waterare shown see p. As can be seen, the tran- enclosed between them.
Nevertheless, the pounds form micelles—i. Closed hollow membrane sacs arevalue. The entropy change in the process known as vesicles. One The separation of oil and water B can be prevented by adding a strongly amphipathicreason for this is that the methane molecules substance. During shaking, a more or lessare less mobile when surrounded by water.
This strongly increases thedegree of order in the water—and the more sowthe larger the area of surface contact betweenwthe water and the apolar phase. When a mixture of waterand oil is firmly shaken, lots of tiny oil dropsform to begin with, but these quickly coalescespontaneously to form larger drops—the twophases separate. A larger drop has a smallersurface area than several small drops with thesame volume.
Separation therefore reducesthe area of surface contact between the waterand the oil, and consequently also the extentof clathrate formation. Physical Chemistry 29A. Solubility of methane B. In general, acids are defined as substances In the blood, the pH value normally rangesthat can donate hydrogen ions protons , only between 7. The pH value ofWater enhances the acidic or basic proper- cytoplasm is slightly lower than that of blood,ties of dissolved substances, as water itself at 7.
In lysosomes see p. For exam- 4. Inous solution, it donates protons to the solvent the lumen of the gastrointestinal tract, which 1. The proton exchange be- treme values are found in the stomach ca. Since the kidney can excrete either acids or bases, de-. Bases such as ammonia NH3 take over C. As a result of Short—term pH changes in the organism aredthis, hydroxyl ions OH— and positively cushioned by buffer systems. Hy- tures of a weak acid, HB, with its conjugate base, B—, or of a weak base with its conjugatedronium and hydroxyl ions, like other ions, acid. This type of system can neutralize bothexist in water in hydrated rather than free hydronium ions and hydroxyl ions.
If hydroxyl ions OH— are added, they react with HB to see p. The stronger the acid or base, thegive B— and water right. For example, the very strongly acidic the pH value only changes slightly. The titra-hydrogen chloride belongs to the very weakly tion curve top shows that buffer systems arewbasic chloride ion 1. The weakly acidic am-monium ion is conjugated with the moder-ately strong base ammonia 3. Physical Chemistry 31A. A Some of these factors contain metal ions aspair of this type is referred to as a redox redox-active components. In these cases, it issystem 2. The essential difference between usually single electrons that are transferred,the two components of a redox system is the with the metal ion changing its valency.
Un-number of electrons they contain. The more paired electrons often occur in this process,electronrich component is called the reduced but these are located in d orbitals see p. In the from the many organic redox systems that are found. This occurs ingiven reducing agent can reduce only certain two separate steps, with a semiquinone radi- cal appearing as an intermediate. Since or-dother redox systems. On the basis of this type ganic radicals of this type can cause damageeof observation, redox systems can be ar- to biomolecules, flavin coenzymes never oc- cur freely in solution, but remain firmlyranged to form what are known as redox bound in the interior of proteins.
Vitamin E, another qui-. The redox potential none-type redox system see p. The oxi-wcentrations of the reactants and on the reac- dized forms contain an aromatic nicotinamidetion conditions see p. In redox series 4 ,the systems are arranged according to theirwincreasing redox potentials. Spontaneouselectron transfers are only possible if the re-wdox potential of the donor is more negativethan that of the acceptor see p. The right-hand example of the two res-B.
If a hydride ion istransferred along with electrons e— , or pro- added at this point see above , the reducedtons may be released. No radical inter-electrons and protons that occur in redox mediate steps occur. Because a proton is re-processes are summed up in the term reduc- leased at the same time, the reduced pyridinetion equivalents. Physical Chemistry 33A. Reducing equivalents2.
Redox systems 4. Redox series 3. Possible electron 3. Biological redox systems e Electron. The reason for this is anoccurring carbonyl compounds aldehydes intramolecular reaction in which one of theor ketones that also contain several hydroxyl OH groups of the sugar is added to the alde-groups. The carbohydrates include single sug- hyde group of the same molecule 2.
The monograph gives, for the first time, a comprehensive overview of the results published in more than papers over the last 15 years. The experiments are explained in detail, applications from many different fields are presented, and the theoretical basis of the systems is outlined. Solving chemical problems, be it in education or in real life, often requires the understanding of the acid-base equilibria behind them.
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Link This second edition of the highly successful dictionary offers more than new or revised terms. A distinguished panel of electrochemists provides up-to-date, broad and authoritative coverage of terms most used in electrochemistry and energy research as well as related fields, including relevant areas of physics and engineering. Each entry supplies a clear and precise explanation of the term and provides references to the most useful reviews, books and original papers to enable readers to pursue a deeper understanding if so desired.
Almost figures and illustrations elaborate the textual definitions. This book explains how the partial differential equations pdes in electroanalytical chemistry can be solved numerically. It guides the reader through the topic in a very didactic way, by first introducing and discussing the basic equations along with some model systems as test cases systematically. Then it outlines basic numerical approximations for derivatives and techniques for the numerical solution of ordinary differential equations.
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This new fourth edition has been carefully revised, updated and extended compared to the previous edition Lecture Notes in Physics Vol. It contains new material describing migration effects, as well as arrays of ultramicroelectrodes. It is thus the most comprehensive and didactic introduction to the topic of electrochemical simulation. With this volume, Ezequiel P. Leiva and co-authors fill a gap in the available literature, by providing a much-needed, comprehensive review of the relevant literature for electrochemists, materials scientists and energy researchers.
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This book represents the first rigorous treatment of thermoelectrochemistry, providing an overview that will stimulate electrochemists to develop and apply modern thermoelectrochemical methods. While classical static approaches are also covered, the emphasis lies on methods that make it possible to independently vary temperature such as in-situ heating of electrodes by means of electric current, microwaves or lasers.
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