Zuma.org (Italian Edition)

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Here's how to get a Miller Lite thanks to U. The elephants opened the battle by charging the main Roman army. Scipio's soldiers avoided the elephants by opening their ranks and drove them off with missiles. The Roman and Numidian cavalry subsequently defeated the Carthaginian cavalry and chased them from the battlefield. Hannibal's first line of mercenaries attacked Scipio's infantry and were defeated.

The second line of citizen levies and the mercenaries' remnants assaulted and inflicted heavy losses on the Roman first line. The Roman second line joined the struggle and pushed back the Carthaginian assault. Hannibal's third line of veterans, reinforced by the citizen levies and mercenaries, faced off against the Roman army, which had been redeployed into a single line. The combat was fierce and evenly matched. Finally, Scipio's cavalry returned to the battle and attacked Hannibal's army in the rear, routing and destroying it.

The Carthaginians lost 20,—25, killed and 8,—20, captured. Scipio lost 4,—5, men, 1,—2, Romans and 2, Numidians, killed.

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Defeated on their home ground, the Carthaginian ruling elite sued for peace and accepted humiliating terms, ending the year war. Crossing the Alps, Hannibal reached the Italian peninsula in BC and won several major victories against the Roman armies. The Romans failed to defeat him in the field and he remained in Italy, but following Scipio's decisive victory at the Battle of Ilipa in Spain in BC, Iberia had been secured by the Romans. In BC Scipio returned to Rome , where he was elected consul by unanimous vote. Scipio, now powerful enough, proposed to end the war by directly invading the Carthaginian homeland.

Scipio and his supporters eventually convinced the Senate to ratify the plan, and Scipio was given the requisite authority to attempt the invasion.

Initially, Scipio received no levy troops, and he sailed to Sicily with a group of 7, heterogeneous volunteers. Scipio continued to reinforce his troops with local defectors. The panicked Carthaginians felt that they had no alternative but to offer peace to Scipio and him, having the authority to do so, granted peace on generous terms. Under the treaty, Carthage could keep its African territory but would lose its overseas empire, by that time a fait-accompli.

Masinissa was to be allowed to expand Numidia into parts of Africa. Also, Carthage was to reduce its fleet and pay a war indemnity. The Roman Senate ratified the treaty. The Carthaginian senate recalled Hannibal, who was still in Italy although confined to the south of the peninsula when Scipio landed in Africa, in BC.


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The Carthaginians no longer believed a treaty advantageous, and rebuffed it under much Roman protest. Hannibal led an army composed of mercenaries, local citizens and veterans and Numidian cavalry from his Italian campaigns. Scipio led a pre- Marian Roman army quincunx , along with a body of Numidian cavalry.

Hannibal was first to march and reach the plains of Zama Regia, which were suitable for cavalry maneuvering.

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This also gave an edge in turn to Scipio, who relied greatly on his Roman heavy cavalry and Numidian light cavalry. Hannibal deployed his troops facing northwest, while Scipio deployed his troops in front of the Carthaginian army facing southeast. Hannibal's army consisted of 36, infantry, 4, cavalry and 80 war elephants , while Scipio had a total of 29, infantry and 6, cavalry. In his second line he placed the Carthaginian and Libyan citizen levies, while his veterans from Italy, including mercenaries from Gaul and Hispania , were placed in the third line.

Their presence is widely discounted as Roman propaganda, although T. Dorey suggests that there may be a grain of truth here if the Carthaginians recruited a trivial and unofficial number of mercenaries from Macedonia. Scipio deployed his army in three lines: the first was composed of the hastati , the second of principes and the third of the triarii. The stronger right wing was composed of the Numidian cavalry and commanded by Masinissa , while the left was composed of Italian cavalry under the command of Laelius.

The greatest concern for Scipio was the elephants.


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  8. He came up with an ingenious plan to deal with them. Scipio knew that elephants could be ordered to charge forward, but they could only continue their charge in a straight line. He created lanes between the regiments across the depth of his forces and hid them with maniples of skirmishers. Since the start of , some 3, migrants have reached Italy, with nationals from Tunisia topping the list, followed by Pakistan, Ivory Coast, Algeria, Iraq and Bangladesh.

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    More than two thirds of these have been picked up at sea relatively close to land by the Italian navy and coastguard, or else have come to shore directly. Barely have been transferred to Italy so far this year by charity rescue ships following moves by Salvini to shut the nation's ports to non-governmental organizations. However two boats have defied the ban in the past two weeks, bringing migrants into Lampedusa.

    The Sea-Watch charity saw donations surge in the wake of this latest showdown and a government official, who declined to be named, said Salvini wanted to hike the threshold for potential fines to one million euros to counter this phenomenon. It was not clear if his coalition partner, the 5-Star Movement, would accept such a rise.